PHL exam 4 wOOOoooOO

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what are free nerve endings used for

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145 Terms

1

what are free nerve endings used for

pain

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2

what are enclosed nerve endings surrounded by layers of connective tissue used for

found on skin, creates graded response and sensitivity on larger regions

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3

what are specialized receptors used for

sense organs, increase sensitivity

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4

chemoreceptor

chemicals (PH, ATP, O2, Co2)

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5

mechanoreceptor

mechanical (touch)

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6

photoreceptor

photons (light)

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7

thermoreceptor

cold and heat

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8

nocireceptor

pain

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9

what are proprioceptors used for

movement, sense of body position, fine motor control

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10

where can you find proprioceptors

muscle spindles, joint receptors, golgi tendon organs

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11

what are cutaneous receptors used for

touch, pressure, heat and cold, pain

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12

special senses

sight, hearing, equilibrium, taste, smell

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13

exteroceptors

respond to external stimuli, (sight, hearing)

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14

interoceptors

respond to internal stimuli, (organs, tissues, mechanical and chemical)

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15

how is a stimulus transduced into an electrical signal

signal transduction pathway, ion channel opens, change in membrane potential, signal to integrating center

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16

what does graded potential determine

stimulus intensity and amount of action potential

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17

where is electrical signal generated

receptor

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18

what does receptor potential determine

stimulus intensity

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19

what is frequency of action potentials proportional to

stimulus intensity

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20

how high will the receptor potential be if the stimulus is long and stronger than average

higher than average

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21

where does the receptor potential take place

transduction site

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22

where is the receptor potential integrated

trigger zone

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23

where does action potentials take place

between the myelinated axon

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24

phasic receptor

fast-adapting mechanoreceptor (putting on a watch)

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25

tonic receptors

slow adapting (smell)

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26

meissners corpuscle function

sensing changes in texture (braille)

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27

where is the meissners corpuscle found

just below layer of skin

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28

ruffini endings function

skin stretch

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29

free nerve ending funtcion

temperature, pain, touch

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30

pacinain corpuscles function

sensing deep pressure

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31

what has sensitive but dense receptive fields

hands, face, lips

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32

what is lateral inhibition

disables spreading of action potential from excited neurons in the lateral direction (allows vision and sound to focus)

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33

what has a less dense receptive field

thighs, forearm

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34

what does it mean to have a small and dense receptive field

you can discriminate 2 points separately when they are closer together

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35

where does fine touch pathway happen

dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway (synapses in medulla)

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36

where does the coarse touch pathway happen

spinothalamic tact (synapses in spinal cord)

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37

does the fine touch go to the opposite side of the brain (contralateral)

yes

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38

does the coarse touch go to the opposite side of the brain (contralateral)

no

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39

functions of endocrine system

regulate development, growth, metabolism, maintain homeostasis, control digestive processes, control reproductive activity

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40

major glands of endocrine system

pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland

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41

what is a endocrine gland

organ/tissue/cells that produce and secrete substance into the blood

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42

what is a hormone

molecule secreted into the blood

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43

what is a target organ

cells that have specific receptors for hormone

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44

what is a receptor

proteins located on plasma membrane or within cell of target organ/tissue

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45

what is a hormonal stimulation

release of a hormone is triggered by the release of another hormone

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46

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) function

stimulates release of thyroid hormone from thyroid

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47

what is a humeral stimulation

changes in blood level of nutrient or an ion trigger release of the hormone

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48

what releases TSH

anterior pituitary

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49

what triggers the release of insulin from pancreas

high blood glucose

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50

what triggers release of glucagon from pancreas

low blood glucose

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51

what organ is associated with humeral stimulation

pancreas

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52

what is nervous system stimulation

simulation of the nervous system triggers the release of a hormone

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53

what is an example of nervous system stimulation

sympathetic stimulation of adrenal medulla (leads to fight or flight)

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54

what reflex mechanism is the adrenal medulla associated with

nerual

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55

what do steroids hormones do

enter cell to bind to target tissue receptor

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56

what kind of hormone is lipid-soluble and formed by cholesterol

steroid hormone

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57

what are some examples of a steroid hormone

estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone

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58

what hormone is water-soluble and derives from amino acids

biogenic amines

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59

what do biogenic amines do

bind to receptor on cell membrane

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60

biogenic amine examples

norepinephrine, epinephrine, thyroid hormone

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61

what is a water-soluble amino acid

protein/glycoprotein

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62

what is the most common type of hormone

proteins/glycoprotein

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63

protein examples

antidiuretic hormone, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone

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64

how are lipid-soluble hormones transported in blood

carrier molecule, loss in urine

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65

what releases hormones

endocrine gland, directly into blood concentrations of hormone

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66

how hormones are eliminated

degradation in liver, excretion in urine by kidneys, uptake by target cells

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67

what organ are water-soluble carrier-proteins produced

liver

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68

which classification of hormones does not require a carrier protein

water-soluble

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69

what do water-soluble hormones do?

activate anabolic pathways, release cellular secretions, change membrane permeability, simulate muscle contractions

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70

what hormone changes membrane permeability

epinephrine (opens Ca channels in heart)

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71

what hormone stimulates muscle contractions

oxytocin

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72

what hormones acts through second messenger systems

water-soluble

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73

what is the first messenger in the 3 common messenger system

hormones

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74

steps of 3 common messenger system

hormone binds to receptor, binding of receptor activates receptor, activated receptor triggers downstream response which amplifies first messenger signaling

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75

what organ degrades hormones

liver

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76

what is up-regulating

increase sensitivity

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77

what is down-regulation

reduce sensitivity

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78

what is the downstream effector of TSH

thyroid

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79

what is the downstream effector of ACTH

adrenal gland

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80

what is the downstream effector of FSH and Lh

testes and ovaries

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81

what is the downstream effector of growth hormones

bones, muscle, adipose tissue, liver

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82

what is the downstream effectors of prolactin

mammary gland

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83

what nuclei controls release and production of oxytocin

paraventricular nucleus

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84

what nuclei controls production and release of ADH

supraoptic nucleus

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85

what part of the pituitary gland contain neural tissue

posterior pituitary

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86

what does the posterior pituitary release

oxytocin and ADH

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87

where are the releasing hormones produced

hypothalamus

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88

which cell in the thyroid gland are the most numerous

follicular cells

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89

what does the parathyroid gland do

regulates blood calcium

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90

what are the effectors of parathyroid hormone

kidney and bone

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91

GH and IGF act through negative feedback to regulate activity of what organs

hypothalamus

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92

how often does the adrenal gland release epinephrine vs norepinephrine

epi 90 norepi 10

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93

what are the functions of epinephrine and norepinephrine

increase heart rate and contraction, breaks down glycogen

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94

zona glomersula

mineral coritcoids

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95

zona fasiculata

glucorcorticoids

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96

zona reticularis

sex steroids

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97

what hormones does the anterior pituitary integrate

ACTH, epinephrine, norepinephrine

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98

what endocrine gland helps regulate blood calcium

parathyroid

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99

function of a-cells

glucagon 40%

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100

function of b cells

insulin 50%

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