PHARMA LEC MIDTERMS PART 2

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Drug that increase Hgb content of blood

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128 Terms

1

Drug that increase Hgb content of blood

Hematinic

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Example of hematinics

Iron, B12, Folic acid, erythropoietic co factors, anabolic steroids

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Necessary for the maturation of RBCs and deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia.

VIT B12

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Required for the maturation of RBCs.

Folic acid

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Erythropoietic co factors

Cobalt and Copper, which help the bone marrow produce RBCs faster.

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Used by individuals to build muscles.

Anabolic steroids

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Drugs that control or stop bleeding.

Hemostatics

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Drugs that stop bleeding from small or superficial blood vessels, such as incisions or abrasions.

Topical/Local

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Topical hemostatics examples

Oxidized cellulose, epinephrine, styptics

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A gauze-like pad placed on top of bleeding to absorb it and close the blood vessel.

Oxidized cellulose/Gelatin sponge

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Used for epistaxis (nosebleeds).

Epinephrine

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Powders, liquids, or sprays used on wounds to stop bleeding, including iodine, methylene blue, silver nitrate, and gentian violet.

Styptics

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Drugs that stop bleeding from large and deep internal blood vessels or in cases of severe injury.

Systemic HEMOSTATICS

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Systemic hemostatics example

Blood transfusion, VITK, Protamine sulfate

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Performed when a significant amount of blood has been lost.

Blood transfusion

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Given during surgery when a large blood vessel is cut to help the liver produce clotting factors.

Vitamin K

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A protein found in the sperm of some fishes that can be used as an anticoagulant.

Protamine sulfate

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Categories of anti-hemostatics

anti-coagulant, fibrinolytic, antithrombotic

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Drugs that interfere with the clotting cascade, used in laboratory tests (in vitro) and blood transfusions (in vivo).

Anticoagulant

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Example of anticoagulants

Heparin, Calcium, EDTA, Calcium, oxalate, Sodium oxalate, Sodium citrate, Acid citrate dextrose

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Drugs that increase the activity of plasma or fibrinolysin, which dissolves clots.

Fibrinolytic

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Example of fibrinolytics

Streptokinase, Streptodornase

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Drugs that affect platelet activity and prevent clot formation, such as aspirin and other NSAIDs, dipyridamole.

Antithrombotic/Antiplatelet

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Antithrombotic example

Aspirin and other NSAID, Dipyrimadole

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Drugs that increase the strength of heart muscle contraction.

Inotropes

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Example of inotropes

cardiac glycoside, phosphodietrase inhibitors, B-ardenergic agonist,

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Derived from plants, such as digitalis, that inhibit the membrane-bound N-K-AT base pump in the heart.

Cardiac glycoside

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Common cardiac glycosides used (Digitalis)

Digoxin, Digitoxin

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Drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterase

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors or non-glycoside, non-catecholamine

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Examples of phosphodiestrase inhibitors

1.      Theophylline

2.      Aminophylline

3.      Amrinone

4.      Milrinone

5.      Sildenafil

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Drugs that stimulate B-adrenergic receptors

B-adrenergic agonist

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B adrenergic agonist examples

1.      Dopamine

2.      Dobutamine

3.      Epinephrine

4.      Isoproterenol

5.      Glucagon

 

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Drugs that treat irregular heartbeat or arrhythmias.

Anti-arrhythmics

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Type of anti-arrhythmic that Block sodium channels to restore normal heartbeat

Class I anti-arrhythmics

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Class I anti-arrhythmics example

Quinidine, procainamide, and lidocaine.

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Type of anti-arrhythmic that act as B-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs

Class II anti-arrhythmics

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Class II anti-arrhythmics example

propranolol, timolol, nadolol, alprenolol, and metoprolol.

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Type of anti-arrhythmic that prolong the cardiac action potential and refractory period

Class III anti-arrhythmics

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Class III anti-arrhythmics example

beryllium, amiodarone, and sotalol.

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Type of anti-arrhythmic that block calcium channels

Class IV anti-arrhythmics

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Class IV anti-arrhythmics example

verapamil, erapamil, and diltiazem.

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Drugs that cause dilation of blood vessels.

Vasoactive drugs

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Vasoactive drugs categories

arterial dilators and venous dilators

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Reduce afterload

Arterial dilators

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Arterial dilator example

captopril

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Reduce preload

Venous dilators

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Venous dilator example

nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, and prazosin.

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Drugs that increase appetite

Appetite stimulant

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appetite stimulant example

B vitamins, steroids(glucocorticoids& anabolic steroids), minerals (zinc), benzodiazepines(diazepam), and cycloheptadiene.

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Drugs that prevent obesity by suppressing the hunger and satiety centers of the brain

Appetite suppressant

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Appetite suppressant example

Apetamin

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Drugs that increase the volume and fluidity of saliva. TX hypoptyalism & xerostomia

Sialagogues

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Sialagogues example

alkaloids from plants and cholinergic drugs.

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Drugs that decrease the flow and fluidity of saliva

Anti-sialagogues

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Anti-sialagogues example

atropine and glycopyrrolate.

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Drugs that coat, lubricate, and protect irritated or abraded mucous membranes.

Alimentary demulcent

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Alimentary demulcent examples

syrup, gum, glycerol, and starch., egg, mineral oil

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Drugs that cleanse and decrease bacterial growth in the oral cavity. TX of halitosis

Buccopharyngeal antiseptic

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Buccopharyngeal antiseptic examples

Mouthwash (pinole, bactidol, hexidine, chlorhexidine), lozenges (dequadin, dequalinium, strepsils)

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Drugs that induce vomiting

Emetic

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Peripherally acting emetics example

§  Warm water is saturated with: CuSo4 or ZnSO4

§  Ipecac (production of toxic emetine)

§  Mustard seed

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centrally acting emetics example

§  Apomorphine (don’t use in cats)

§  Xylazine (less effective in dogs)

§  Ipecac

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Drugs that control vomiting

Anti-emetic

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Peripherally acting anti-emetic example

glycopyrrolate, propantheline, methscopolamine, isopropamide, metoclopramide, and domperidone

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anti-emetic most used in vet practice

Metoclopramide

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Locally acting anti-emetic

antacids, kaolin, pectin, bismith subsalicylate

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centrally acting anti-emetic

o   Metoclopramide – sedative (barbiturate)

§  Metoclopramide is advocated for the control of persistent vomiting caused parvoviral infection.

o   Labyninthine – anxiolytics (diazepam)

o   Meclizine (teratogenic)

o   Dimenhydramine

o   Diphenhydramine

o   Cyclizine (teratogenic)

o   Promethazine

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Drugs that promote the function and activity of the stomach by increasing motility and secretion

Stomachic

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Example of stomachic

bethanechol, neostigmine, bicarbonate, pentagastrin, betazole, and histamine acid phosphate.

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Drugs that decrease gastric motility. Also known as gastric sedatives

Anti-stomachic

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anti-stomachic example

atropine and glycopyrrolate.

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Drugs that reduce excess acid in the stomach

Antacid

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Substances that bind with Alkaline drugs to neutralize HCl

Sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate

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Drug used to treat wounds caused by excessive hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

H2 Blocker (antacid)

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H 2 blocker example

§  Cimetidine

§  Ranitidine

§  Famotidine

§  Nizatidine

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Drug used to treat ulcers and relieve pain caused by excessive acid in the stomach.

Proton Pump Inhibitor (antacid)

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Proton pump inhibitor example

§  Dexlansoprazole

§  Esomeprazole magnesium

§  Lansoprazole

§  Omeprazole - most commonly used

·       Omeprazole magnesium

·       Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate

§  Pantoprazole sodium

§  Rabeprazole sodium

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Drugs that promote the expulsion of gas from the stomach.

Carminatives

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Carminative examples

Alcohol ether, Chloroform, Ginger oil, Peppermint oil, Anise oil, and Eucalyptus oil

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Drugs that depress ruminal fermentation and treat bloat in ruminants.

Antizymotic

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Antizymotic exm

Turpentine oil, Formalin, and Poloxalene

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drugs affecting intestinal function

  • Laxative and purgatives

  • enema

  • Spasmolytic

  • GIT protectant and absorbent

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Drugs that induce defecation by promoting the elimination of soft, formed feces.

Laxatives

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Drugs that induce defecation by promoting the elimination of watery feces.

Purgatives

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Laxative and purgative example

  • Lubricant (mineral oil, Docusate sodium, polaxazol)

  • Simple bulk laxative (methylcellulose, agar, plantago seeds, wheat bran, prunes, cilium

  • osmotic cathartics (magnesium sulfate, mg hydroxide, sodium sulfate, sodium phosphate, lactulose)

  • irritant cathartics(indirect: castor oil, linseed oil, olive oil direct: bisacodyl, phenolphthalein

  • neuromuscular purgatives (neostiigmine, physostigmine, bethanechol, and carbachol

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Solution or suppository introduced into the rectum to initiate defecation.

Enema

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Enema example

soapy water,  Glycerol, Sorbitol, Isotonic saline, Mineral oil, Vegetable oil, Docusate sodium

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Drugs that decrease peristaltic movement and reduce the chance of having diarrhea.

Spasmolytic/Antispasmodic

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spasmolytic examples

Opioid analgesic and anticholinergics

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Drugs that protect the gastrointestinal tract and adsorb toxins.

GIT Protectant and Adsorbent

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git protectant & adsorbent

activated charcoal, attapulgite, kaolin, pectin, bismuth salt

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Drugs that increase the digestion of nutrients.

Digestants

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digestants example

acidifier, enzyme, probiotic, prebiotic

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Drugs given when there is insufficient hydrochloric acid to aid in protein digestion.

Acidifier

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acidifier example

formic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid

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Substances that aid in the digestion of specific nutrients.

Enzyme

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enzyme example

lipase, protease, amylase

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Good bacteria that aid in digestion.

Probiotic

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probiotic example

lactobacillus, bacillus, saccharomyces

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Nutrients that support the growth of good bacteria.

Prebiotic

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