Psych exam 3

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

learning

1 / 124

Tags and Description

125 Terms

1

learning

the process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors

New cards
2

associative learning

learning that certain events occur together.The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

New cards
3

stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

New cards
4

respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

New cards
5

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment,producing consequences

New cards
6

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

New cards
7

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

New cards
8

operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

New cards
9

reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

New cards
10

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

New cards
11

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

New cards
12

negative reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock

New cards
13

primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

New cards
14

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.

New cards
15

reinforcement schedule

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

New cards
16

continuous reinforcement schedule

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

New cards
17

partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

New cards
18

fixed-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

New cards
19

variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

New cards
20

fixed-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

New cards
21

variable-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

New cards
22

punishment

an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.

New cards
23

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

New cards
24

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

New cards
25

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

New cards
26

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

New cards
27

encoding

the process of getting information into the memory system

New cards
28

storage

the process of retaining encoded information over time

New cards
29

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

New cards
30

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions

New cards
31

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

New cards
32

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

New cards
33

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

New cards
34

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

New cards
35

explicit memory

retention of facts and experiences the one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory)

New cards
36

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

New cards
37

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

New cards
38

implicit memory

retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)

Ex.(Learning to tie your shoes)

New cards
39

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

New cards
40

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

New cards
41

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

New cards
42

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

New cards
43

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

New cards
44

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

New cards
45

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

New cards
46

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words

New cards
47

preparedness

a biological predisposition to learn associations, such as between taste and nausea, that have survival value

New cards
48

instinctive drift

the tendency of learned behavior to gradually revert to biologically predisposed patterns

New cards
49

cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment

New cards
50

latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

ex.(Your rat Nelson explores a maze with no reward. Running this same maze for a food reward with few errors demonstrates this concept)

New cards
51

intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

New cards
52

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

New cards
53

observational learning

learning by observing others

New cards
54

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific-behavior

New cards
55

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so(imitation, language learning, and empathy)

New cards
56

prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior

New cards
57

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

New cards
58

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past

New cards
59

proactive interference

the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new information

ex.(Calling your new romantic partner by your old romantic partner's name)

New cards
60

retroactive interference

the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old information

New cards
61

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

New cards
62

reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

New cards
63

misinformation effect

occurs when misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event

New cards
64

source amnesia

faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined

New cards
65

deja vu

that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

New cards
66

semantic memory

explicit memory of facts and general knowledge

New cards
67

episodic memory

explicit memory of personally experienced events

New cards
68

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit (conscious) memories -- of facts and events --for storage

New cards
69

memory consolidation

the neural storage of a long-term memory

New cards
70

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

New cards
71

long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; a neural basis for learning and memory

New cards
72

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

New cards
73

encoding specificity principle

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it

New cards
74

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood(Strong emotions tend to make you remember more)

New cards
75

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

New cards
76

Heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes ( can vary based on traits; population;enviornment)

New cards
77

Stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

New cards
78

sexual response cycle

(Masters and Johnson) - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

New cards
79

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. lasts for a few minutes to a day or more

New cards
80

sexual disfunction

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

New cards
81

Estrogens

sex hormones, contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

New cards
82

Testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional amount of this hormone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

New cards
83

Asexual

having no sexual attraction to others

New cards
84

Erectile Disorder

inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis

New cards
85

Female orgasmic disorder

distress due to infrequent or never experiencing orgasm

New cards
86

Paraphilias

sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non-consenting persons

New cards
87

AIDS(acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

a life-threating, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV); depletes the immune system

New cards
88

Sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of one’s own sex(homo), the other sex(hetero) or both(bi)

New cards
89

case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

New cards
90

naturalistic observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

New cards
91

survey

a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

New cards
92

How did Thorndike contribute to the field of learning?

Combined learning theory, psychometrics, and applied research for school-related subjects to form psychology of education

New cards
93

The Garcia effect

a phenomenon in which conditioned taste aversions develop after a specific food becomes associated with a negative reaction(nausea or vomiting)

New cards
94

The Garcia effects impact on learning

allowed for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions

New cards
95

Taste Aversion

a learned association between the taste of a particular food and illness such that the food is considered to be the cause of the illness

New cards
96

How is taste aversion different from typical classical conditioning?

Only needs to happen once; needs time to be learned

New cards
97

What is the role of cognition in learning?

encourages students to “think about their thinking” as a means to help them unlock a concept or subject they struggle with

New cards
98

What is an example of latent learning?

a mental representation of the spatial layout of an environment (done by observational learning and/or exploration)

New cards
99

What does Clive have?

Retrograde Amnesia

New cards
100

Describe Baddeley’s model of working memory

Working memory is like a multi-part system, and each system is responsible for a different function

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1446 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(12)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 55 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard127 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 75 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)