Anatomy Exam 2 Unit 4

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Tissues differentiate during..

1 / 146

Tags and Description

Biology

147 Terms

1

Tissues differentiate during..

Development to carry out specific functions

For ex: When sperm fertilizes the egg it becomes a zygote. This cell can be specialized in the muscle, skin, and liver

Genes turn off

New cards
2

4 major tissues in the body

Epithelial

Connective

Muscular

Nervous

New cards
3

Epithelial Tissue

Lines body cavities that open to the exterior; specialized for \n absorption, secretion and excretion

New cards
4

Connective Tissue

Specialized to support and cushion the body; the binding tissue, also fights infection

New cards
5

Muscular Tissue

Specialized for contraction

New cards
6

Nervous Tissue

Specialized tissue that generates electrical impulses

New cards
7

Epithelial Tissue features

consists mainly of cells bound together by junctions; little \n extracellular material

New cards
8

Apical Surface

faces interior or exterior space

New cards
9

Basal surface

attached to CT layer by the basement membrane

New cards
10

Avascular

no blood vessels; obtains substances by diffusion

New cards
11

High rate of cell division in…

ET; cells near basement membrane constantly \n undergoing mitotic division

New cards
12

Epithelial Tissue functions

  1. Physical Protection- Barrier, Abrasions, Dehydration

  2. Control Permeability- Selective Absorption (Digestive tract)

  3. Provide sensations about environment- Hot, Cold Pressure

  4. Produces specialized secretions by forming glands

New cards
13

2 type of glands in ET

Endocrine and Exocrine

New cards
14

Endocrine gland

Glands are ductless \n - Hormones are simply secreted into circulation

New cards
15

Endocrine gland example

thyroid and pituitary

New cards
16

Exocrine gland

Gland secretions are discharged into ducts \n - Empty onto skin or other epithelial surface

New cards
17

Exocrine gland

Lacrimal glands, perspiration onto skin, milk in \n mammary glands

New cards
18

Epithelial Tissue 3 different shapes

squamous, cuboidal, columnar

New cards
19

Squamous

fried eggs, snake scales look

New cards
20

Cuboidal

cube-like

New cards
21

Columnar

Tall columns

New cards
22

Epithelial 3 cell arrangements

Simple, stratified pseudostratified

New cards
23

Simple

single layer

delicate, fragile

New cards
24

Simple ET location

internal protected areas

New cards
25

Simple ET function

diffusion, absorption, filtration

New cards
26

Stratified

several layers

New cards
27

Stratified ET location

external

New cards
28

Stratified ET function

protection

New cards
29

Pseudostratified

actually simple, but appears stratified

all cells directly contact the basement membrane

New cards
30

Simple squamous ET

Most delicate and allows for diffusion/absorption to take place

New cards
31

Simple squamous ET location

lines outside of intestine and lining of blood vessel

New cards
32

Simple squamous ET also forms..

serous membrane \n o Lines ventral cavities and organs \n o Pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart) and peritoneum \n (abdominopelvic cavity)

New cards
33

Stratified squamous ET

Protection against physical/chemical attacks

New cards
34

Stratified squamous ET location

found in high stress areas

eg: skin (outermost layer) & vagina

New cards
35

Simple Cuboidal ET

adapted for secretion/absorption

New cards
36

Simple Cuboidal ET location

Rare; found in sweat glands and mammary glands

New cards
37

Simple columnar ET Non-ciliated

Secretion/absorption

New cards
38

Simple columnar ET Non-ciliated location

lining of small intestine

New cards
39

Simple columnar ET ciliated

protection/movement

New cards
40

Simple columnar ET ciliated location

respiratory tract and fallopian tubes

New cards
41

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar ET

Single layer, but looks like more \n - Nuclei are multilayered \n - All cells are still in contact with the basement membrane \n - Its really just ciliated simple columnar in disguise!

New cards
42

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar ET location

trachea

New cards
43

Connective Tissue is the…

most widely distributed tissue in the body

New cards
44

Connective tissue contains specialized cells in and secretes…

  1. Extracellular Protein fibers

  2. Ground substance

New cards
45

Ground Substance (CT)

(a clear viscous fluid)

  • The extracellular protein fibers and ground substance \n form the matrix.

New cards
46

Matrix (CT)

a nonliving mixture that exists within the intracellular spaces.

  • It can be hard (bone), rigid (cartilage), fluid (blood)

New cards
47

CT is made up mostly of

matrix

New cards
48

ET is made up mostly of

cells

New cards
49

CT is found in underlying..

structures (not on surface structures like ET was).

New cards
50

CT is highly…

vascularized

ET had no blood supply

New cards
51

CT functions as a structural framework to…

interconnect and protect, a transport medium, an energy reserve and a defense system against invading microorganisms.

New cards
52

CT is classified according to 3 things

  1. types of fibers

  2. types of cells

  3. types of matrix

New cards
53

In CT, what is not vascularized

cartilage

New cards
54

Types of cells that may be found within connective tissue like…

Fibroblasts

Leukocytes

Adipocytes

Melanocytes

Mesenchymal

Mast Cell

MMALMF

__M__y __M__others __A__ss __L__ooks __M__f __F__at

New cards
55

Fibroblasts

produce fibers that are found within CT and help to produce parts of the matrix

New cards
56

Leukocytes

(WBCs) are commonly found in blood, but can also migrate into CTs temporarily

New cards
57

Leukocytes examples

Macrophages

New cards
58

Macrophages

phagocytize foreign materials and also signal to \n activate the immune system when stimulated.

New cards
59

Adipocytes

(fat cells)- store lipids

New cards
60

Melanocytes

synthesize and store a brown pigment called melanin. Melanin colors the epithelium (epidermis) and CT (dermis) of the skin.

New cards
61

Mesenchymal

stem cells that respond to injury or infection by dividing and \n then differentiating into different CT cells

New cards
62

Mast cells

“WBC” contain histamine and heparin which stimulate inflammation

New cards
63

CT fibers are formed by..

fibroblast

New cards
64

The types of fibers in CT

Collagen fibers, Reticular Fibers, Elastic Fibers

New cards
65

Collagen fibers

“Waves”

Most numerous of the 3 fiber types \n o Long, straight and unbranched \n o Composed of the protein, which is VERY STRONG. \n o Appear white when present in large numbers

New cards
66

Reticular fibers

“Network”

Thinner than collagen fibers \n o Tend to form branched networks

New cards
67

Elastic Fibers

“Branched and wavy when not stretched”

Have the ability to stretch and then return to original length \n o Composed of the protein elastin

New cards
68

Elastic fibers are found in:

the air sacs of lungs, dermis of the skin, blood vessels and in between vertebrae

New cards
69

Reticular fibers are found in and provide..

a strong supporting net that helps to stabilize the organs, BV, nerves and other structures.

New cards
70

Collagen Fiber are found in:

Tendons and ligaments

New cards
71

Loose connective tissue

packing material; cushion and stabilize; fill spaces between \n organs; surround and supports other tissues

New cards
72

Areolar connective tissue is the most…

widely distributed of all the connective tissues.

New cards
73

Areolar connective tissue

Very loosely organized with an open framework (this allows it to distort without damage)

\n o has very few cells (mostly fibroblasts and macrophages) \n that are not organized in any particular manner.

New cards
74

Areolar connective tissue function:

Forms a layer that separates the skin from underlying \n structures. This serves to absorb multidirectional shock and permits distortion without damage.

New cards
75

Areolar connective tissue location:

between epithelial tissue and muscle tissue. Acts similar to \n glue, holding these two structures together.

New cards
76

Adipose Tissue

Contains mostly adipocytes (fat cells), which have only a small area of cytoplasm and a large fat droplet

New cards
77

Areolar Tissue

different fibers are scattered throughout the matrix

New cards
78

Adipose Tissue

very little matrix. The cells are packed closely together and look something like chicken wire.

New cards
79

Adipose Tissue Function

serves as padding, shock absorber (TG) and filling, as well as an \n insulator and energy preserve

New cards
80

Adipose Tissue location

can be found under the skin and around certain organs

New cards
81

These adipocytes can be stimulated by the nervous system to breakdown their lipid contents..

which leads to an increase in body temperature.

eg: Brown fat, found in infants, is different because it is highly vascularized and also contains numerous mitochondria

New cards
82

Reticular connective tissue

Made primarily of these fibers \n o Will see many dark cells with dark r. fibers scattered throughout

New cards
83

Reticular connective tissue function

provides a framework to supports cells within

New cards
84

Reticular connective tissue location

the spleen, liver, lymph nodes and bone marrow

New cards
85

Dense connective tissues

are dense with protein fibers

New cards
86

Dense regular connective tissue

Very few cells (a few fibroblasts which produce the many collagen fibers)

Composed of bundles of collagen which are arranged in orderly, parallel rows (looks wavy)

New cards
87

Dense regular connective tissue function

secures bones during movement

New cards
88

Dense regular connective tissue location

Tendons, Ligaments, Aponeurosis

New cards
89

Dense Regular CT

Tendons:

unite skeletal muscle cells; attaches skeletal muscle to bones

New cards
90

Dense Regular CT

Ligaments:

attach bone to bone

New cards
91

Dense Regular CT

Aponeurosis:

a flat, sheet-like structure that attaches muscle to bone or bone to bone

New cards
92

Dense irregular connective tissue

Collagen fibers are not arranged in any particular pattern. The fibers are scattered in various directions.

New cards
93

Dense irregular connective tissue function

the scattered unordered fashion that the fibers are arranged \n in actually adds to their strength when they are being pulled in different directions.

New cards
94

Dense irregular connective tissue location

around in joints and also forms a layer around cartilages \n (perichondrium) and around bone (periosteum)

New cards
95

Elastic Tissue

A dense, regular connective tissue that is dominated by elastic fibers \n o Looks like lasagna when viewed from the side

New cards
96

Elastic Tissue function

the large amounts of elastic tissue allow it to stretch and then return to its normal size and shape

New cards
97

Elastic Tissue location

found in the lungs and in some arteries

New cards
98

Vascular Tissue contains…

Blood Lymph and Cartilage

New cards
99

Blood

Consists of a liquid matrix called plasma (fluid part of blood) \n o Within the plasma are the suspended elements:

erthrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

New cards
100

Erythrocytes “RBC”

transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)