Oxygenation

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100 Terms

1

ABC

airway, breathing, circulation

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2

airway, breathing, circulation =

ventilation, respiration, perfusion

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3

oxygenation

process of providing cells oxygen

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4

For ventilation to occur, needs:

integrity of airway system to transport air for lungs

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5

Respiration

oxygenates venous blood and removes co2

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6

Internal respiration

exchange of O2 and CO2 between circulating blood and tissue cells

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7

External respiration

breathing, bring air into lungs

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8

Cardiopulmonary system

heart and lungs

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9

Cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

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10

Airway

pathway for transport and exchange of oxygen and CO2

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11

Airway made of

Nose until terminal bronchioles

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12

Upper airway

nose, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis

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13

Upper airway job

warm, filter, humidify air

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14

Lower airway/tracheobronchial tree

trachea, main stem bronchi, segmental bronchi, terminal bronchioles

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15

Lower airway job

conduction of air, mucociliary clearance, produce surfactant

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16

Lungs

main organs of respirations

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17

Right lung has ___ lobes

3

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18

Left lung has ___ lobes

2

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19

Lung breakdown

Lung, lobe, lobules

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20

Pleural fluid job

lubricant and adhesive to hold lungs in expanded position

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21

Alveoli

site of gas exchange

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22

what controls the ANS breathing rate?

Chemoreceptors in brain and carotid arch

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23

Diaphragm role

contracts to create negative pressure

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24

Two types of chemoreceptors

central and peripheral

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25

Peripheral chemoreceptors measure

blood pH and PaO2

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26

Central chemoreceptors measure

PaCO2

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27

Central chemoreceptors location

medulla oblongata

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28

Peripheral chemoreceptors location

carotid arch

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29

Ventilation control chain

Receptors, brain stem respiratory center, muscles of breathing, alveolar ventilation

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30

Pulmonary ventilation

movement of air in and out of lungs

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31

Inspiration is the ___ phase, expiration is the __ phase

active, passive

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32

Respiration

gas exchange between atmospheric air in alveoli and blood in capillaries

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33

Airway resistance

obstruction that air meets as it moves through airway

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34

Lung compliance

ease with which the lungs can be inflated

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35

Where does respiration occur?

terminal alveolar capillary system

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36

Mechanism by which gas exchange occurs

diffusion

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37

Change in ______ available can hinder diffusion

surface area

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38

Tidal Volume

normal breath in and out

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39

Arterial Blood pH normal range

7.35-7.45

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40

Arterial PaCO2 normal range (mmhg)

35-45

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41

Arterial Blood HCO3 normal range (meq/L)

22-26

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42

SaO2 Normal range

95-100

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43

PaO2 Normal range (mmHg)

80-100

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44

Sympathetic, parasympathetic

fast, slow

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45

Sympathetic hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine

(adrenergic)

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46

Sympathetic targets

Alpha 1,2

Beta 1,2

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47

Alpha 1 stimulation means

dilates eyes, vasoconstriction

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48

What are alpha 1 blockers often used for?

hypertension

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49

Alpha 2 stimulation means

decrease saliva, decrease, CO, decrease norepinephrine in brain

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50

Beta 1 affects

heart muscles

(stimulation increase HR, Contractility, automaticity, CO)

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51

Beta 2 receptors activation

bronchodilation

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52

Inhalers target

beta 2 receptors

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53

Beta blockers used for

hypertension

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54

B.E in blood gas means

base excess

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55

Beta mimetics or blockers

decrease sympathetic output

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56

Beta blockers role

decrease cardiac output but blocking Beta 1 and 2

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57

Epinephrine stimulates

b1 and b2

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58

Parasympathetic alternate names

acetylcholine/cholinergic

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59

Parasympathetic targets

muscarinic and nicotinic

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60

M2 stimulation

slow heart rate, decrease contraction, CO2

vagus nerve

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61

M3 stimulation

induce smooth muscle contraction and mucus secretion

pee, poop, tears, saliva, wet glands

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62

adventitious

abnormal breath sounds on lungs

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63

angina

temporary imbalance between oxygen needed by heart and amount delivered to heart muscles

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64

atelectasis

incomplete expansion/collapse of a part of the lungs

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65

av bundle

muscle that transmits impulse from av node to ventricles

to contract

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66

AV node

heart muscle in septal wall of right atrium, receives impulses from sa node and transmits to av bundle

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67

bradypnea

slow breathing rate

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68

bronchial

larynx and trachea noise

high-pitched, blowing sound

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69

bronchovesicular

normal breath sounds over mainstem bronchus

moderate blowing sounds with inspiration = exp

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70

capnogrpahy

monitor ventilation and blood flow through lungs

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71

crackles

made as air moves through wet secretions in lungs

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72

dyspnea

labored breathing

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73

dysrhythmia

abnormal cardiac rhythm

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74

hyperventilation

more air entering and leaving lungs

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75

hypoventilation

decreased rate or depth of air movement into lungs

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76

Hypoxemia

deficient blood oxygenation

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77

Hypoxia

not enough oxygen available to tissue cells

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78

ischemia

blood deficiency in certain area

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79

SA node

initiates electrical impulses, pacemaker

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80

Spirometer

measures lung capacities and volumes

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81

Sputum

respiration secretion expelled by coughing or clearing the throat

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82

surfactant

phospholipid that reduces surface tension of fluid lining the alveoli

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83

tachypnea

rapid breathing rate

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84

vesicular

respirations heard on peripheral lung areas

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85

rhonci

deep, low pitched snoring sound

partial airway obstruction

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86

stridor

high pitched sound heard over neck

secondary to upper airway obstruction

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87

Whispered pectoriloquy

whisper sounds heard on thoracic auscultation

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88

fremitus

vibrations of speech felt as tremors of chest wall during palpation

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89

hemoptysis

expectoration of blood from respiratory tract

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90

obstructive sleep apnea

temporary absence of breathing due to secondary to transient upper airway obstruction

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91

orthopnea

shortness of breath when lying flat

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92

physiologic dead space

portion of tracheobronchial tree that does not participate in gas exchange

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93

Brochophony

abnormal increase in clarity of transmitted voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs

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94

Bronchoscopy

direct examination of larynx, trachea, and bronchi using an endoscope

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95

egophony

abnormal change in voice tone heard when auscultating the lungs

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96

Nasal cannula

device that delivers oxygen via prongs in the nostrils

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97

Hypercapnia

high amount of Co2

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98

Hypercarbia

high amount of CO2 in the blood

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99

Pleural effusion

abnormal amount of fluid in pleural cavity

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100

Pneumothorax

air in pleural space

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