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Josiah Strong

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1

Josiah Strong

clergymen who led the social gospel movement

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2

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century.

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3

James G. Blaine

James Gillespie Blaine was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881.

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4

Richard Olney

Richard Olney was an American statesman. He served as United States Attorney General in the cabinet of Grover Cleveland and Secretary of State under Cleveland

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5

Liliuokalani

Hawaiian Queen who tried to eliminate white control in the Hawaiian government. The white population revolted and seized power. Under McKinley Hawaii was annexed

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6

"Butcher" Weyler

Spanish general whose brutal tactics against Cuban rebels outraged American public opinion

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7

Dupuy de Lome

He was a Spanish minister in Washington who wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley (called him basically usless and indecisive) The discovery of his letter strained Spanish-American relations, which helped initiate the Spanish-American War.

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8

George Dewey

A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines

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9

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

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10

William H. Taft

27th US president, took over presidency after theodore Roosevelt, strengthened ICC, trust buster

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11

John Hay

Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal

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12

Theodore Roosevelt

1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.

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13

Big Sister Policy

A foreign policy of Secretary of State James G. Blaine aimed at rallying Latin American nations behind American leadership and opening Latin American markets to Yankee traders. The policy bore fruit in 1889, when Blaine presided over the First International Conference of American States.

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14

Great Rapprochement

After decades of occasionally "twisting the lion's tail," American diplomats began to cultivate close, cordial relations with Great Britain at the end of the nineteenth century—a relationship that would intensify further during World War I.

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15

McKinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

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16

Insurrectos

Cuban insurgents who sought freedom from colonial Spanish rule. Their destructive tactics threatened American economic interests in Cuban plantations and railroads.

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17

Maine

Battleship that was sent to Cuba

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18

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

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19

Rough Riders

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20

Anti-Imperialist League

objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

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21

Foraker Act

gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico

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22

Insular Cases

Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.

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23

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

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24

Open Door Note

message send by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.

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25

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.

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26

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.

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27

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

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28

Gentlmen's Agreement

1907 agreement between the U.S. and japan to limit japanese immigrants.

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29

Root-Takahira Agreement

1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.

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30

Social Gospel

A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

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31

Muckrakers

Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public

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32

Referendum

a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

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33

Australian Ballot

a government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public

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34

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

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35

Lochner v. New York

Supreme Court case that decided against setting up an 8 hour work day for bakers

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36

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers

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37

Elkins Act

(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers

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38

Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.

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39

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

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40

Hetch Hetchy Valley

The federal government allowed the city of San Francisco to build a dam here in 1913. This was a blow to preservationists, who wished to protect the Yosemite National Park, where the dam was located.

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41

Panic of 1907

a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.

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42

Brownsville Affair

In 1906, when a small group of black soldiers shot off their guns in Brownsville, Texas, killing one resident, and none of their fellows would name them, Roosevelt ordered the dishonorable discharge of three black companies 156 men in all, including six winners of the Congressional Medal of Honor.

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43

Dollar Diplomacy

Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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44

Payne-Aldrich Bill

While intended to lower tariff rates, this bill was eventually revised beyond all recognition, retaining high rates on most imports. President Taft angered the progressive wing of his party when he declared it "the best bill that the Republican party ever passed."

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45

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

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46

New Freedom

Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.

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47

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.

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48

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

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49

Thornstein Veblen

The Theory of the Leisure Class; Conspicuous, Consumption

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50

Eugene Debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

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51

Jacob A. Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

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52

Robert M. La Follette

progressive Wisconsin governor whose agenda of reforms was known as the Wisconsin idea

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53

Hiram W. Johnson

Republican governor of California. Regulated railroads and trusts. Helped break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics. Set up political machine of his own.

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54

Florence Kelly

Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children.

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55

Frances E. Willard

Leader of Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

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56

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

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57

John Muir

(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.

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58

Herbert Croly

He wrote the The Promise of American Life (1909) where he called for an activist fed govn't of the kind Hamilton had advocated in the 1790s but one that would serve all citizens, not merely the capitalist class.

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59

Underwood Tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax

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60

Federal Reserve Act

a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

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61

Federal Trade Commission Act

A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition, false advertising, and mislabeling of goods.

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62

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions

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63

Workingmen's Compensation Act

Passed under Woodrow Wilson, this law granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability. It was a precursor to labor-friendly legislation passed during the New Deal.

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64

Adamson Act

1916 law that established 8 hour workday for railroad workers in order to avert a national strike

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65

Jones Act

(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.

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66

Tampico Incident

In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.

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67

Central Powers

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire

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68

Allies

Britain, France, and Russia- Later joined by Italy

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69

U-Boats

German submarines

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70

Lusitania

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.

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71

Zimmerman Note

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile

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72

Fourteen Points

A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.

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73

Committee on Public Information

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.

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74

Espionage Act

1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying

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75

Schneck v. United States

A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.

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76

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

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77

Industrial Workers of the World

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

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78

General Strike

strike by workers in many different industries at the same time

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79

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

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80

Ninteenth Amendment

Guaranteed women the right to vote in 1920

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81

Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act

Designed to appeal to new women voters, this act provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of government in family welfare.

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82

American Expeditionary Forces (AEF)

American forces in Europe during World War I

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83

Battle of Chateau-Thierry

The first significant engagement of American troops in World War I—and, indeed, in any European war. To weary French soldiers, the American doughboys were an image of fresh and gleaming youth.

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84

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. The whole offensive was planned by Marshall Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to surrender;

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85

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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86

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

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87

Irreconcilables

Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

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88

Louis D. Brandeis

wrote the book Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use it. Further showed the problems of the American banking system. Wilson nominated him to the supreme court making him the first jew in that position.

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89

Victoriano Huerta

He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.

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90

Francisco Villa

A Mexican rebel who crossed into New Mexico and killed 18 Americans

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91

Arthur Zimmerman

Germany's Foreign Secretary who proposed an alliance with Mexico against the United States

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92

George Creel

Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

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93

Eugene V. Debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

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94

William D. Haywood

Leader of the Industrial Workers of the World who promoted the concept of one all-inclusive union whose credo would be the promotion of socialism.

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95

Herbert C. Hoover

1929-1933

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96

PP: Republican

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97

~Stock Market Crash

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98

~Depression and Dust Bowl

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99

Alice Paul

Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

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100

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

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