AP Gov: Unit 2: Linkage Institutions: Elections & Voting, Parties, Campaigns, Interest Groups, Media

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Linkage Institutions

1 / 159

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

160 Terms

1

Linkage Institutions

  • Connect people and government

  • News, elections, parties, media, interest groups

  • Impact what people know

  • People can use to influence politics

New cards
2

Political Engagement

  • Anytime a person tries to influence political action

  • Indirectly shapes policy (design of politics

New cards
3

Voting

  • Most common form of participation

  • Conventional + Direct

  • Difficult to determine turnout

  • VAP (percent who can vote that did vote)

    • Useful, but ineligible voters not included

  • Voter eligibility

    • Solved issues with VAP by adding all eligible voters

    • Difficult to calculate

  • Registered population

    • Counted all that were registered

    • Registered voters are more likely to vote, which skews the data

  • Those who vote are focused on by polling companies

  • Likely voters

    • Educated, more income, registered, older, black, female, married, urban

    • Concerns of non-voters usually not adressed

  • Most choose based on party ID

New cards
4

Conventional Participation

  • Ordinary, easy, legal political participation

New cards
5

Direct Participation

  • Political participation with a specific impact

  • Will or will not succeed

New cards
6

Money + Time (participation)

  • Conventional + Direct

  • Money goes to political candidates

  • Not as common

  • Many people contact officials directly

New cards
7

Civil Input (participation)

  • Conventional + Direct

  • Letters, town meetings, lobbying

New cards
8

Protest

  • Unconventional + indirect

  • Not always illegal

  • Applies pressure to political actors through media pressure and salience

New cards
9

Direct Action

  • Unconventional + indirect

  • Also known as civil disobedience

  • Illegal, but peaceful

New cards
10

Radicalism

  • Unconventional + indirect

  • Direct action but harmful

New cards
11

Informal political participation

  • Talking with friends about politics, political conversations, etc.

New cards
12

Elections

  • Run by states/localities

  • The right to vote is not guaranteed by Constitution

  • The government does not have the power to regulate voting

  • Congress can control how states run elections

    • 15th, 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments (race, gender, income, age respectively)

New cards
13

Voting Rights Act

  • Comes from Congress’s powers (can prevent discrimination by 15th amendment, can stop states from denying rights like the right to vote, can regulate elections)

  • Prevents vote dilution

  • Enforcement

    • Person being discriminated against can bring civil action lawsuit

    • Government can sue states

    • Pre-clearance

      • List of troublesome states

      • Must get approval from senate before changing voting procedures

  • Section 2 and 5 prohibit race-based gerrymandering

    • These sections have an implied requirement that minorities at a certain percent of the popualtion must get one majority district

New cards
14

Vote dilution

  • Attempt to make someone’s vote not count

  • Ex. Putting more voting places in non-black neighborhoods

New cards
15

Other achievements of voting legislation

  • Mail-in voting, disability access, overseas voting, early access voting

New cards
16

NVRA 1992 (National Voting Registration Act)

  • People have frequent interactions with the government

  • This act required the government to let people register to vote whenever they interacted with the government (driver’s license, medicare, etc.)

New cards
17

HAVA 2002 (Help America Vote Act)

  • Bad voting machines were used in 2001, made the election uncountable

  • This act forced states to update their mechanisms

  • It was very expensive

New cards
18

Gerrymandering

  • Drawing voting districts to manipulate voting

  • Can occur as packing or cracking

  • It happens in all democracies

  • Recent changes in computing and data collection have made voters behavior more trackable and this more accurate

  • New districting policies are used by states to do this

    • Bipartisan committee, state courts, interest groups

  • Incumbent is generally favored using this

New cards
19

Packing

  • Occurs when one district is drawn for one demographic majority, and multiple are drawn for another

New cards
20

Cracking

  • Occurs when a demographic or party is split among many districts, getting no majorities

New cards
21

Baker v. Carr

  • Congressional seats are not always proportional to the amount of seats in Congress

  • States are not required to use an equal population

  • Some voters disadvantaged (urban populations higher with less representation)

  • Tennessee residents sued in the south on violations of the 14th amendment and Article 3 Section 2 of the Constitution

  • Supreme Court agreed with Tennesseeans

  • Forced states to redistrict

New cards
22

Shaw v. Reno

  • Gerrymandering lawsuits were common by this time

  • North Carolina drew its 12th district along a highway that snaked through the state that had numerous black voters on it

  • Black voters sued, thought they were being disadvantaged, sued for packing

  • Supreme Court sided with black voters, said districts couldn’t be drawn solely on the basis of race

  • 14th, 15th amendments used, as well as VRA

New cards
23

Rucho v. Common Cause

  • Math modeling used with new technology

  • Shows the evolution of gerrymandering

  • Difficult to measure extent of gerrymandering

New cards
24

Negative incentives against voting

  • Opportunity Cost

  • Information Cost

  • Political efficacy

  • Voters overcome these barriers

New cards
25

Civic Duty

  • Moral/individual duty to vote

  • Used to surpass negative incentives

  • Belief that you should vote in order to uphold democracy

  • Incentivizes most, even low efficacy voters

New cards
26

Types of elections

  • Presidential has most turnout

  • Midterms are lower that presidential (higher information cost)

  • State level typically lower

  • Initiatives/referenda depend on situation

  • Primaries very low

  • Turnout in general is very low

New cards
27

Retrospective Voting

  • Voting based on how the previous administration handled their job

  • Pocketbook voting most common

  • Sometimes based around foreign policy

New cards
28

Policy Voting

  • Those who vote based on a candidate’s policy preferences

  • Single issue voters

  • Not as significant today

  • Voters must have clear sense of policy positions

  • Voters must know where candidates stand on issues

  • Voters must see where candidates differ on issues

  • Voters must cast a vote for candidate they favor

  • Most know candidates but fail to vote

  • Sometimes complicated (multiple policies)

  • Candidates often make policy positions clear (more straightforward and clear)

New cards
29

Aspirational Voting

  • Those who vote for people that inspire them

New cards
30

Oppositional Voting

  • Those who vote against people they dislike

New cards
31

Thermostatic Voting

  • Those who vote to get the current party out of power

New cards
32

Candidate Evaluation Voting

  • Those who vote based on the character qualities of candidates

New cards
33

Cross-pressuring

  • Non party-ID voters can determine the outcome of an election

  • This occurs to these voters by both parties

New cards
34

Median Voter Theory

  • A spectrum of candidates and voters exists

  • Voters vote for the candidate closest to them on the spectrum

New cards
35

Valence Issue

  • Political issue on which everyone agrees

  • No unique positions can be taken on these issues by politicians

New cards
36

Non-salient issues

  • Political issues that are only important to a select few

New cards
37

Position Issue

  • Issue that politicians use to differentiate themselves from other candidates

New cards
38

Party

  • Nominates people for office

  • Tries to control policymaking

  • Defined by policy goals, not ideology

  • Only goal is to get candidate to win

  • Inevitable in democracy

  • They are used by political actors to push policy goals

New cards
39

Party in the electorate

  • Party uses “heurisitc cues” (voters know which policies candidates support based on the party they identify with, makes voting simpler, less information cost)

  • Party image (values/symbols)

  • Party platform (what the party wants to do)

  • Party coalition (groups/organizations similar to the party)

  • Try to get public support for the party

  • Spectrum of supporters (low/high intensity identifiers, party officials, elected officials)

New cards
40

Party as organization

  • Local organization raise money for the party

  • State organization organize state elections

  • The Republican and Democratic National Conventions are held to organize party

  • Recruit/nominate candidates (go out and find those who are interested)

  • Raise money and fund campaigns

  • Catalog information about voters

New cards
41

Party in government

  • Coordinates policymakers

  • Committees are manipulated by party officials in government

  • People are nominated to higher office

  • Strong members of the party coalition are empowered

New cards
42

Control of the party system

  • No formal requirements for parties

  • Senate and HOR determine how committees work, rest left to parties

  • Electoral college reinforces dominance of two party system

New cards
43

Responsible Party Model

  • Clear, unified agenda for each party

  • Differentiate themselves from other party

  • Must follow through on policy goals

  • Not always accurate (people don't always vote based on policy)

New cards
44

Duverger’s Law

  • In a winner takes all, 3rd parties detract from the side they are closest to by taking votes

  • 3rd parties can expose divisions and catalyze realignment

  • They are not long-lasting

New cards
45

Changes in parties

  • Party and leadership changed to facilitate party goals

  • Change positions after major events

  • Realigning moments change parties

  • Campaign/media technology has improved and changed parties

  • Changes in nomination/voting law can change

New cards
46

Party system

  • Stable demographic set who votes for one of two dominant parties

  • Consistent policy/ideological stances are used to appeal to people

New cards
47

First Party System

  • Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans

  • Cleavages in region

  • State powers, France + England, NA relations, slavery, expansion controversial

  • Newspapers used

  • Candidates didn’t do much

  • Caucus system

  • Electorate limited to white voters

  • Fractured by Jackson

New cards
48

Second Party System

  • Democrats vs. Whigs

  • Western farmers, immigrants, urban workers, enslavers are all new groups

  • Slavery, westward expansion, banking, and tarriffs were controversial

  • Electorate was expanded to all white men

  • Fractured by the Civil War

New cards
49

Third Party System

  • Democrats v. Republicans (from now on)

  • Industrial working class, free black men in the electorate (black men limited after reconstruction)

  • Social/technological change, organized labor, immigration, monopolizaiton, imperialism controversial

  • Telegraph, trains for campaigning

  • Fractures because of economic problems of farmers

New cards
50

Fourth Party System

  • Progressive and non-progressive wings in each party

  • Inconsistent ideoloically (tried to appeal to as many people as possible)

  • Low polarization

  • Economic intervention/immigration controversial

  • Women added to electorate

  • Yellow press, new tools for campaigning

  • Fractures because of Great Depression

New cards
51

Fifth Party System

  • White voter cleavages

  • WWII, CW, Red Scare

  • TV, Radio

  • Primaries cemented

  • Fractures because of Vietnam War

New cards
52

Sixth Party System

  • Urbanacity cleavages

  • Evangelism grows

  • Immigration, LGBT rights, welfare reform controversial

  • Conservative domination

  • Cable TV, parties more complicated

  • Campaigns more effective and expensive

  • Fractured by Social Media and Trump

New cards
53

Seventh Party System

  • Trump/Obama

  • LGBT issues very important

  • Swing states and polarization

New cards
54

Party Network

  • Funding groups, interest groups, community leaders

  • Empowers and enhances the party

  • Connects people to parties indirectly

New cards
55

Party Money

  • Campaign funding from party very important

  • Donations are recieved and funneled towards worthy candidates

New cards
56

Nomination/Selection process

  • Nearly impossible to seek office without assistance from party

  • Primaries mobilize voters early

  • Databases are used to help campaigns

New cards
57

Party in the legislative branch

  • Congress leadership is distributed by party leaders

  • Party leaders give out positions, pass bills, etc.

  • Party priorities control legislators

New cards
58

Parties at the state/local level

  • Very important to candidates at local level

  • Expand party network, create organizations

New cards
59

Suffrage

  • Right to vote

  • Almost everyone over 18 has it

  • Exceptions: non-citizens (banned at state level) and convicted criminals (differs based on state)

New cards
60

Political Efficacy

  • Belief that ordinary people can influence government

  • Convinces people to go to polls

  • Those with a low amount of this are less likely to vote

New cards
61

Voter Registration Laws

  • Laws that require individuals to place their name on an electoral roll before voting

  • Harder to vote more than once, but has discouraged many from voting

  • Different laws in different states

  • Used to be strict in the South (court ceremony during business hours)

  • Polemical Issue

New cards
62

Motor Voter Act

  • 1993 act

  • Made voter registration a lot easier (states had to include registration on driver’s license application)

  • Not very successful at increasing voter turnout

New cards
63

Rational-Choice Theory

  • Explains political processes and outcomes

  • Political actors have goals and pursue them sensibly and efficiently

  • Voters want to maximize odds that policies they want get passed

  • Parties want to win office

  • Party must select policies that are widely favored, and if they do they should be more successful

  • Must stick to moderate policy in order to gain appeal

  • Parties must develop individual identities to appeal to adherents

New cards
64

Party Identification

  • Preference for one party or another

  • Has decreased recently (more independents)

  • Younger people more likely to be independent

New cards
65

Ticket Splitting

  • Voting with one party for one office and the other for another office

  • Voting for some Republicans and some Democrats

  • Leads to more uncertainty for how a region will vote

  • Even if a party has a big edge in a state, it may lose some seats because of this

New cards
66

National Convention

  • Meeting of party every 4 years

  • Writes party platform, nominates candidates for president and vice president

New cards
67

National Committee

  • Leaders of the parties that come from states

  • Lead the party between conventions

New cards
68

National Chairperson

  • Director of each party

  • Organize party

  • Spend lots of money

New cards
69

New Deal Coalition

  • Group of voters strongly in favor of Democratic ideals and New Deal policies

  • Mostly urban dwellers, labor unions, catholics, Jews, the poor, and African Americans

  • Mostly make up Democratic coalition today

New cards
70

Party Dealignment

  • Recent trend

  • Disengagement from politics (less party identification)

New cards
71

Third Party

  • Linkage institutions that fall outside of the normal parties

  • Rarely win elections, but can set foundations for future parties (ex. free-soilers)

  • Some promote certain causes or extreme ideologies

  • Some are offshoots of the major parties

  • Some are extensions of a popular individual

New cards
72

Blue Dog Democrats

  • Democrats that voted against Obama’s economically liberal plans

  • Fiscally conservative, socially liberal

  • Demonstrates how people in power use their own discretion

New cards
73

Campaign

  • Organized attempt at winning an election

  • Some ground rules

  • All offices have different rules and strategies

New cards
74

Campaign Technology

  • Campaigns driven by technology

  • Social media, online fundraising, direct mail, polling

  • Need money and experts (candidates too busy)

New cards
75

Direct Mail

  • Mail sent to voters

  • Technology gives campaigns voter information

  • Mail can targeted at certain groups

New cards
76

Campaign Cycle

  • Idea that campaigning never ends

  • When one race ends, the next starts

  • Invisible primary (always trying to ensure renomination)

  • Must constantly outperform others

  • Officials must split time between their duties and campaigning

New cards
77

Nationalization of politics

  • Officials must appeal to national issues, even at the local level

  • National issues more polaized

  • Congressional races affected especially

New cards
78

Campaign Staff

  • All campaigns need a professional staff

  • Campaign managers, finance managers, organizers

  • Used for digital marketing, direct mail, polling, and policy research

New cards
79

Media Battle

  • Fight for positive media attention

  • Free Media: Attention, not paid

  • Paid Media: Payments for ads, AKA air war, very important to win elections

New cards
80

Field Battle

  • Fight for recognition

  • Canvassing, rallies, speeches

New cards
81

Digital Battle

  • Must deliver a message

  • Make sure candidates and the policies they support are known

  • Strike down negatives

  • Strike down opponents

  • Incentivize your voters, decentivize other voters

New cards
82

Campaign War

  • Four pronged battle for media, field, finance, and digital recognition

  • Strength in all battles is needed for success

New cards
83

Fundraising

  • Extremely important, finance fuels campaigns

  • Small donors: small periodic donations, contacted through email

  • Large donors: lump sums

New cards
84

Call Time

  • Calling voters directly

  • Very important for getting small donors

New cards
85

Congressional Campaigning

  • Most Congressional seats are safe (seats reps/dems will always win)

  • Incumbents have a huge advantage (known, have fundraising, have party connections, have lines gerrymandered)

New cards
86

Wave year

  • Years where one party wins a bunch of seats in Congress

  • Lowers incumbent advantages

  • Usually midterms (people have an idea of how successful current party is)

New cards
87

Congressional Midterms

  • Mostly thermostatic voting

  • Lower turnout

  • High political efficacy are overrepresented

  • Ballot shared with local elections

  • Party may intervene for close races

New cards
88

Campaign Finance

  • Individuals can donate directly

  • Donations can come from parties/PACs, which come from individual donations

  • Modern campaigns extremely expensive

New cards
89

Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)

  • Defined political entities (PACs, campaigns, parties)

  • Placed limits on individual contributions

  • Campaigns can accept a limit on donations

    • If they do, they get a federal bonus

  • Expenditure limits on campaigns

New cards
90

Federal Election Commission (FEC)

  • Established by FECA

  • Committee of 6 (3 reps, 3 dems)

  • Monitor donations/expenditures by campaigners

  • Mandates campaign reports

  • Investigates infractions of finance law

New cards
91

Buckley v. Valeo

  • Challenge of FECA

  • Argues that spending money is an act of free speech

  • FECA is unconstitutional

  • Split decision

    • Big donations might be seen as corruption and can be limited

    • Limits on self-donations removed (impossible for there to be corruption)

    • Expenditure limits struck down

New cards
92

Post-FECA changes

  • Theory arises that money always finds its way into campaigns

  • Hard money: money people can spend directly on campaigns

  • Soft money: money given to parties/PACs that is then passed on to campaigns

  • People turn to soft money after FECA

  • Independent supporters can accept unlimited contributions

  • Party committees can bring in money

New cards
93

BCRA

  • Passed in retaliation to soft money rise

  • Modernized FECA

  • Regulated individuals, PACs, parties, and campaign expenditures

  • Ads had to claim ownership (powerful regulations)

New cards
94

Citizen’s United v. FEC

  • Citizen’s United created documentary defaming Clinton family leading up to 2008 primary

  • Stopped and sued by FEC (corporations regulated by FECA/BCRA

  • Ruled that spending from corporations is also free speech and can’t be limited

  • Uncapped donations are only corrupt if money goes directly to the campaign

  • Led to development of SuperPACs

New cards
95

SuperPACs

  • PACs not legally allowed to affiliate with campaigns

  • Can accept unlimited contributions

  • End up interacting with campaigns anyway (rules are vague)

New cards
96

Importance of donations

  • Biggest spender doesn’t always win, but usually does

  • Large donors give huge advantage

New cards
97

527 Groups

  • Can take unlimited donations

  • Must be about a specific issue

  • Can coordinate with candidates, but can’t make supportive ads

New cards
98

Presidential Campaigns

  • Permanent campaign (invisible primary)

  • Incumbent not usually challenged for renomination

  • Fundraising must be built early

New cards
99

Presidential Nomination

  • Official endorsement of a candidate for office by a party

  • Requires money, media, and momentum

  • Each state sends delegates to national convention

  • Delegates vote for nominee

  • Whoever wins gets nomination

  • Primaries are main way delegates are chosen (popular vote)

  • Caucuses: mini-debates, informal voting

  • Candidates must win support of delegates in each state (delegate chase)

  • Early states are very important

  • Super Tuesday (lots of states hold primaries at same time)

  • Delegates typically bound to vote how they say they will

  • Republicans have fewer delegates

  • Republicans choose delegates based on winner-take-all system, Democrats choose based on proportianate voting

  • Delegates typically vote how they say they will

New cards
100

Frontloading Problem

  • States start primaries really early for media attention

  • Candidates who win early get attention

  • States get fundraising

  • Some worry it rushes voters and campaigners

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 754 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(14)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1395 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard119 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 131 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard242 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)