imperial consolidation and liberal rule

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What prompted National Efficiency?

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What prompted National Efficiency?

Concerns of decline in Br industrial production in comparison to Germany and US. Press and high imperialist thought for Britain to be globally prosperous the people needed to be better educated and healthier

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Measures of National Efficiency

1902 Education Act \n Modernisation of the Royal Navy \n Established Imperial a College of Science and Tech (1907) \n School Medical Inspection (1907) \n Children's Welfare Charter (1908) \n Old Age Pensions (1909) \n Unemployment and health insurance

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What was the 1902 Education Act?

Made significant provisions for secondary education \n Councils encouraged to subsidise grammar schools and provide free places for working class children \n Allowed local authorities to provide meals for free if parents couldn't pay

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What was the modernisation of the Royal Navy?

Dreadnoughts introduced in 1906 \n By 1914, Br had 24 and Germany had 17 \n Decommissioned older battleships

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Establishment of Imperial College (1907)

City and guild college to improve training of craftsmanship, technologists and engineers \n 87 acre land bought for 342.5K

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School Medical Inspections (1907)

Children's welfare charter (1908)

Require education authorities to ensure all children under care received a medical inspection

Established juvenile courts \n Children prevented going into pubs and smoking \n Enhanced protection over kids

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Old Age Pensions (1909)

Introduced pensions for 70 year olds

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Unemployment and health insurance

Compulsory health insurance for workers earning under 160/year. Free medical treatment offered

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General benefits of imperial trade

Investments \n Colonies provided market for exports \n Colonies provided natural resources and foodstuff for imports

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Statistics about British imports and exports with the Empire at the end of the 19th century

1875-1900: 20% Br imports came from the colonies \n 1/3 of Br exports went to the Empire's market

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Importance of India for exports

By 1914, India provided a market for 20% of Br total exports worth 150 million

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British overseas investment between 1900-1913

From 2bn to 4bn (2x Fr and 3x Gr)

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How much was Empire trade worth in 1896?


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General negatives of Imperial trade

Britain lagged behind in the development of new industries - they relied on rubber imports from South East Asia whilst Fr, RUS, Gr had developed their own synthetic rubber by 1910 \n White dominions had implemented their own protectionist tariffs \n No internal free trade between colonies as proposed by Chamberlain \n Expansion of empire didn't mean expansion of trade e.g. Uganda

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1902 London Colonial Conference

Overseen by Joseph Chamberlain (SoS of Colonies from 1895 to 1903) with dominions to create closer economic links - mutual custom agreements and protective tariffs aka imperial preference. \n Ideas were met with resistance. Rejected with the Liberal victory in 1906

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How much of Br's exports went to Africa in 1894?


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Where did Britain import wheat flour from in 1894?

Overall, Britain spent 64million \n 30.2million from USA \n 3.6million from Canada

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Specific groups of people who trade with the Empire impacted on?

The city (the bankers/ finance houses/insurance etc) \n British public (workers/ tax payers) \n Br government \n Br industry

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Evidence Empire benefitted those from the city

\n Finance capitalists made huge profits - 22 new merchant banking millionaires between 1860 - 1919 \n Br became economic hub of the world \n Between 1913-14, 60% of the transaction passing through the city were involved with a British party \n British freight suppliers - profits rose from 80 million (1870) to 150 million (1914) - evidence of global trading? \n By 1900, Thomas Cook was the single largest Egyptian employers

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Evidence Empire was negative on those from the city

Only 1/4 of 6bn invested by the city from 1850 went to the Empire \n Many colonial investments went bust \n Invested elsewhere like Latin America

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Evidence that Empire was beneficial for the British public

Administration was cheap - only 20p/ per head/ year \n Naval spending meant increase in British shipyards which employed 1 million people \n Particularly beneficial to Portsmouth, Belfast and Glasgow \n Indian army was supplied by Br manufacturers

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Evidence that Empire was negative for the British public

\n Paid for the majority of defence \n For the Royal Navy: colonies paid 3p/head/year \n Br taxpayer paid 1.56/head/year \n Only those from upper class were expected to have a prestigious role in the Empire \n Defence spending was double that of Germany \n Br would have more money if they gave up Empire from defence costs

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Evidence that Empire was beneficial for British industry

Lancashire cotton - 15 new cotton millionaires between 1850 - 1914 \n Empire grew in importance after Br couldn't sell to Europe \n Decline in Br goods going to Germany (1870-1900) was from 40% to 31% \n Growth in exports going to Empire (1870-1914) was from 26% to 35%

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Evidence that Empire was negative for British industry

If Br had abandoned Empire, loss of trade would have amounted to 3% and savings on defence would have compensated \n Loss of Empire would have encouraged development of industries

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Decline in British trade share from 1860 to 1929

From 49% to 36%

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Britain and the gold standard

forced other colonies to adopt the gold standard. By 1908, only china, Persia and some Central American countries still used the silver standard

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Education reforms show there was widespread public enthusiasm for the British Empire from 1890-1914

1870: Education Act increased national literacy rates

  • 1900: Spicer's Empire League for young boys → branches across Empire, 6000 boys

  • 1908: Baden Powell's Scouts → made Empire fun

  • By 1910, 108,000 boys

  • Disraeli made the Tories the party of Empire

  • Established "The Imperial College of Science and Technology 1907) → increase in industry and opportunities for highly-skilled workers

  • Promote research and knowledge of Empire

  • Modernised the Royal Navy: The British public are extremely proud of their navy and it asserted Britain's dominance over Germany. → 1906 Dreadnought

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Education reforms don't show there was widespread public enthusiasm for the British Empire from 1890-1914

Grammar schools only taught about Empire properly as they were to take on imperial roles (focus was put on the 3R's (reading, writing and arithmetic)

  • Other incentives to join the organisations

  • No necessary link between literacy rate and increase in imperial fervour even could argue that made people more knowledgeable and critical

  • People about to think more for themselves

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Press shows there was widespread public enthusiasm for British Empire from 1890-1914

The Boer War was an important event that the Daily Mail (Amery) and Daily Express (Lord Beaverbrook) covered

  • Reports of the war, battles and victories were highly sensationalised and portrayed the soldiers as heroes → the reports didn't convince people to join them being poor did according to Price

  • The Boer War proved to be very popular with the British public. In 1898 the Daily Mail was selling 400,000 copies a day.

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Press doesn't show there was widespread public enthusiasm for the British Empire from 1890-1914

Turn of the century → rise in popular journalism aimed at working class which was highly sensationalised

  • People were excited about the exotic nature of the different colonies not necessarily enthusiastic about Empire itself

  • People were drawn in due to the news headlines

  • And the new format of newspapers as newspapers now had brief news reports and daily stories

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Popular events shows there was widespread public enthusiasm for British Empire from 1890-1914

schools celebrated Empire Day from 1902 (Queen V's birthday)

  • Music halls: Gilbert and Sullivan

  • The Pirate of Penzance glorified the status of being a sailor or admiral and rising through the ranks. Also seen in Modern Major General which shows it's the highest honour in a man's life.

  • Patriotic fervour is clear and how they "love our House of Peers" and the imperial decisions they make

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Popular events don't show there was widespread enthusiasm for British Empire from 1890-1914

Henry Pelling: the jingoistic songs doesn't prove that the working class were jingoistic.

  • The working class less frequently participated in imperial celebrations compared to the middle and upper class.

  • Just shows how the conservatives worked hard to win over the working class (J.M. MacKenzie)

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Labour movement shows there wasn't widespread public enthusiasm for British Empire from 1890-1914

LL → Empire as authoritarian regime and world-wide extension of capitalism

  • Keir Hardie → aware of capitalist aggression

  • More focus should be put on domestic issues such as wages and unemployment

  • Empire is too expensive → average middle-class taxpayer paid for the majority of the defence and administration of the Empire double that of Germany (Anglo-German Naval Race)

  • And the working classes social and domestic needs were being neglected

  • Elite: Empire wasn't consistent in its profit (many colonial investments produced heavy losses) e.g. BSAC paid no dividend between 1889-1923

  • Boer war marked change in attitude - criticism over concentration camps (almost 28,000 died, about 22,000 of them children)

  • John Hobson (wrote Imperialism in 1902) and Emily Hobhouse

  • Empire manipulated the working class towards the conservative agenda

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How did the development of Scientific racism influence the public attitude to Empire from 1890-1914

Darwin published OoS in 1859, soon applied to humans \n Quasi-scientists, disappearance of North American Indians, Maoris and Aborigines because they are weak \n Moral right reinforced as they are superior as they are white

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successes of Curzon (1899-1905)

  • created buffer zone on NW Frontier (where Afghanistan meets British land)

  • replaced Br troops with local warriors under Br command

  • put responsibility of land on local warlords

  • control was extended in Jammu and Kashmir provinces to mountains

  • increased the railway network by 10,000km

  • increased area of irrigated land by 3 million hectares

  • introduced department of agriculture

  • increase in efficiency and cut down reports and survey

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failures of Curzon

  • moved in Chinese controlled Tibet in 1904 led by Sir Francis Younghusband

  • annexed Tibet by machine gunning monks defending their territory

  • sent in resignation - didn't think it'd be accepted - failed tactical move to be seen as stronger than the commander-in-chief of the Indian Army (Lord Kitchener)

  • partition of Bengal 1905- flagrant instance of divide and rule

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Curzon and education

Instigated inquiry into Indian higher education, failed to include Indians on committee

1904 Universities Act -Restricted growth in number of private colleges and include more centrally nominated officials on large university governing bodies

1882: 4 unis, 67 colleges, 600 students \n 1901: 5 unis, 145 colleges, 18,000 students

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Why was Bengal partitioned?

  • Calcutta was the INC base; too much political power, wanted to split their support base

  • administration of Bengal was problematic as population was x2 of Britain with 78 million people

  • Vulnerable to famine when the monsoon failed

  • huge amounts of workers were prone to unrest - Blue Mutiny of indigo workers

  • Under EIC there were discussions to reorganise province and Curzon sought to seek a resolution

  • the rising power of the INC so religious division would weaken IN

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Hindu and Muslim reaction to Bengal partition

Bengali community split along religious lines (Muslim and Hindu majority provinces), Bengali Hindus outraged by divide and rule, Muslims happy with their province - new political power base, deepened religious divides

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National movement after Bengal partition

Swadesh (boycott) on British goods & Lancashire cotton, anniversary of partition a national day of mourning, terrorism; 1908 2 European women killed with a bomb, 1909 official at India Office shot by a Punjab

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What happened to Congress after the Bengal partition?

Divisions between peaceful and violent members

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Why did educated figures criticise the Partition?

Why did Curzon resign?

Lack of consultation of Indian people

Backlash after Bengal Partition

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Who led the violent wing of the INC?


  • helped created the Lucknow Pact (1916) between INC and Muslim League

  • two parties agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.

  • methods and ambition lived on through Gandhi

  • Boycotts, direct action, made demands, not requests, (favoured peace after deportation)

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Who led the non-violent wing of the INC?

Gokhale- \n Politically criticised British at annual budget discussion at imperial Legislative Council, worked closely with John Morley, Secretary of State for India

  • Gokhale recognised as admiral leader by Gandhi

  • Gokhale was president of Congress between 1905 - 1015

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Morley-Minto reforms

1909 Indian Councils Act, Gokhale consulted

  • Allowed Indians to sit on the Imperial Legislative Council, Council enlarged from 25 to 60 members (27 elected), \n \n introduced elected element in provincial councils, separate communal representation for Muslims in provincial councils \n Bengal had 53 provincial representatives

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insignificance of Indian Councils Act

Superficially progressive; maintained religious separation, councils only advisory (could be ignored), still an unelected majority so British could always win, by 1917 of the 168 resolutions main in the Imperial Legislative Council 76 were rejected by government and 68 were withdrawn

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When was Lord Hardinge Viceroy?

1910 - 1916

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What did Lord Hardinge do for India?

1911 reunified Bengal, in favour of liberal political reform, supported Indian rights in South Africa, declared war on India's behalf in 1914 \n survived assassination attempt in 1912 (couldn't get rid of extremist activity)

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What was the Delhi Durbar 1911?

Celebrated George VI's coronation, every Indian prince and nobleman attended, covered 20 square miles and cost £2m

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India’s contribution to WW1

1.4 million Indians fight, 64,000 dead and 67,000 wounded

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What was the Great Game?

\n Political and diplomatic confrontation between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan and other parts of Central and South Asia

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Brief timeline of the Great Game

1884: Russians capture Pandjeh on the Russia border side of Afghanistan \n British armies mobilised in India \n September 1884: agree that Russo-Afghan border should be settled by an Anglo-Russian commission \n After agreement, Colonel Charles Maclean was the chief spymaster until 1891 \n 1900: rumours of Russian troops by the Prussian border raised fears \n Fears of Russian influence in Tibet, growing nationalist press in India increased sympathy towards Russia \n 1902: Alliance with Japan (Russia's natural enemy)

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Causes of the Second Afghan War 1878-1880

Culmination of tension, Disraeli's Forward Policy promoted expansion, 1876 British conquest of Quetta, July 1878 Russians force an uninvited delegation into Kabul and British agent turned away at Afghan border

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Consequences of the Second Afghan War

British victory, criticism from liberal press, proven success of Forward Policy, Russians pushed out and British influence and control established

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Why did tensions heighten between Russia and Britain at the start of the 20th century?

Rumours of Russian troop movements and extension of a railway down to the Prussian border, fears of Russian influence growing in Tibet, paranoia about power balance shifting away from Britain in Asia

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Invasion of Tibet

Rumours of Russians there; when British arrived there were none there, 700 Tibetan monks killed; liberal press criticism

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How did the Great Game end?

Aug 1907; Russian government promise to respect Indian borders, agreed partition of Persia - Russia northern sphere of influence, GB south and east, War with Germany intervened after Russian code broken showed Russian consul encouraging dissidents in Mashad, 1912

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Why did the British feel the need to get involved in Sudan?

Between 1888-1898 there was a lot of competition between European powers over who could control the Nile. Expedition during Summer 1895 commanded by Captain John Baptiste Marchand worried the British as he'd been taking territories in Western Sahara in the name of France. In March 1897, he set off from Gabon with 163 officers trekking to the Upper Nile looking for alliances. They believed they had the right to control the surrounding land as they controlled Egypt. Salisbury was an imperialist MP, who wanted to avenge General Gordon.

  • lake Victoria was the source of the Nile, which irrigated British Egyptian cotton plantations- the French wanted to ‘turn it on and off like a bathtub spigot’ which threatened British interests

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What happened during the climax of the war on 2nd September 1898?

On a plain near Omdurman, Khalifah's army were massacred by the British's long-range rifles, machine guns and artillery. 11,000 of Khalifah's men were killed and 16,000 were wounded. A memorial service was held by Gordon the next day.

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What was the Fashoda Incident?

Problems arose when Marchand was reported to be at Fashoda with other explorers. Kitchener came to a diplomatic resolution and Marchand left and the Egyptian flag was holster over Fashoda. The French government argued that the British's control shouldn't overreach into Southern Sudan and the British argued the French had no claim for any of the Upper Nile. The French eventually stepped down.

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What were the consequences of the conquest of Sudan?

It was a huge and largely unexplored region that had very little formal government. The British had to introduce taxation and banned customs like stock rustling and inter-tribal feuds which received many objections. There were public hangings in 1908 due to uprisings in Sudan.

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Challenges in Zanzibar

Khalid bin Barghash assumed power in 1896, commanded 3000 men and lasted 2 days

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Challenges at Sierra Leone

in 1898, Colonel Cardew introduced hut tax (a form of taxation introduced by British in their African possessions on a "per hut" (or other forms of household) basis.) which was made in resistance. Deployed a scorched earth approach and led to surrender in November 1898.

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How did Britain manage the Egyptian economy after 1882

After the 1898 Fashoda Incident, Britain and France signed an Entente Cordiale in 1904 promising France to respect Britain's special rights in Egypt. Caisse de la Dette became a debt collection agency for foreign bond holders. Khedive Isma'il's £70 million debt meant Lord Cromer had to make cutbacks to military and bureaucracy. Cromer improved communications and invested in the £2 million Aswan Dam which opened in 1902. Within 10 years, exports of cotton and sugar trebled.

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How did Britain manage the Egyptian political structure after 1882

Mixed courts were set up to deal with Egyptian and European cases. Egypt had a partially-elected Parliament. The number of Britons in government increased from 100 in 1885 to 1000 in 1905. Cromer placed 6000 British troops in Egypt. By 1890s there was a growing middle class threat to political rule fuelled by the media. Evelyn Baring led the administration.

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What was the Egyptian attitude towards British rule after 1882

Lord Cromer improves conditions for Egyptian labourers and introduced better \n sanitation and health services. In the late 1890s, newspapers attached the British as there was still corruption in government. The British failed to promote Egyptian cloth-making industry. There was a lack of opportunities for educated Egyptians. A National Party was formed to end British occupation (first formed in 1881 and revived in 1893). In 1906, there was a clash between British officers and villagers at Denshawai which led to the arrest of 52 villagers. Gorst imposed tighter censorship of the press in 1909.

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What was the British attitude towards the Egyptians after 1882

Few tourists ventured into surrounding countryside and Europeans were discouraged from engaging with locals. The British presented them controlling Egypt as being good for the people of Egypt. Baring has a racist view of the Egyptians and he purposely didn't give them a good education system (only had the University of Cairo for religious studies)

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How did the British get involved in Sudan?

Charles Gordon is sent to act as Governor-General of Sudan on behalf of Ismail (1877-1880) \n The Madi transformed an emerging nationalist movement into a jihadist army opposing the British. \n By 1882, the Madi had complete control over the area surrounding the capital, Khartoum. \n Gladstone didn't want further conflict and ordered General Gordon to oversee the evacuation of troops from Khartoum in 1884. However, they were overrun in January 1885 and the whole garrison was killed with Gordon being beheaded. \n Salisbury became PM in 1885 and as a pro-imperialist he was convinced he needed to retake parts of the Sudan and did so in 1896. \n It provoked the Fashoda Incident in 1898 which saw the French step down agreeing that the Sudan became a British sphere of influence.

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Similarities with Egyptian political rule with Sudan

It took the British 30 years to subdue the various tribes in Sudan \n (al-Hizab-Watani) which formed in 1881 with educated individuals were weakened. Gorst tried to quell nationalist movement \n They made an example of rebels with public hangings in Sudan. They sentenced 5 people to death involved in the Denshawai incident in Egypt. \n They had to overcome the Mahdi with violence when they sent forces in which led to death of Colonel Williams. In Egypt, they had to overcome Arabi Pasha and his uprising with public hangings.

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Similarities with Indian political rule with Sudan

Tribes refused to renounce customs such as inter-tribal feuds. Dalhousie reforms e.g. Doctrine of Lapse and making sati illegal received backlash

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Differences with Indian political rule with Sudan

The Madhist uprisings were violent whilst Swadesh was peaceful. \n Sudanese people had very little government representation whilst Gokhale worked with Morley-Minto to create the Indian Councils Act (1909) \n People in India were educated whilst there was no education in Sudan so it was easier to suppress.

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Similarities with Egyptian economic rule with Sudan

In Sudan in 1911, there were improvements in the irrigation system. The Aswan Dan opened in 1902 and enabled 1/2 million acres of former desert to be irrigated with water. \n In Sudan in 1911, set up the Gezira scheme to create high-quality cotton. In Egypt after 1882, within ten years, exports of cotton and sugar tripled. \n Attempts to improve the economy with taxes occurred in both countries.

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Similarities with Indian economic rule with Sudan

Telegraph and railways lines were extended to link key areas in Northern Sudan. In India, by 1900, India had the longest railway in Asia. \n In 1911, set up the Gezira scheme to create high quality cotton and in India, by 1900, there were 200 cotton mills producing 500 \n million per year.

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How was British expansion in West Africa 1870s-1890s motivated by developments driven by rivals?

The French wanted a railway from West Africa to the Red Sea on French soil \n By early 1890s, the French were in a decisive phase in West Africa and the Western Sahara

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How did Britain administer its West African colonies?

Used existing structures of local emirs for indirect rule \n Maintained transitional laws e.g. Islamic Laws in Northern Nigeria \n Abolished barbaric laws and introduced British legal system \n Chieftains took responsibility for tax and revenue

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Factors that motivated growth of British influence in East Africa

German coup in East Africa \n Showcase British superiority \n Wanted to protect their claim of the Big Lakes region and market as it was profitable and the lakes was the source of the Nile which gave life to Egypt \n German Explorer, Karl Peters was threatening to take the Lakes \n region \n Spurred on by government pressure

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British expansion into Kenya

Offered a coastal route to Uganda \n Used the succession dispute between native Mazrui and the Muslim majority to force control \n Sheikh obtained weapons from Germans however was crushed and became part of Britain's East Africa Protectorate in 1895

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Nature of British control of natives in Kenya (1890s-1920s)

Generally treated population badly \n Tried to wear away culture with the hut tax of 3 rupees and 3 rupees per wife for hut-owners with more than 1 wife \n In 1918, blacks were banned from European living areas unless for work \n They would whip the labourers/miners \n Set up schools by early 1920s for the chief's sons

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Economic development in Kenya (1890s-1920s)

By 1913, the British government had paid £2.8 million for the Railway to the shores \n The Railway was completed in 1903 and by 1908 it was making an annual profit of £60,000 \n Introduced European agricultural methods \n Indians came to Kenya to build railways \n coffee, maize growing and ranching were flourishing

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Population and racial make-up in Kenya (1890s-1920s)

In 1916, there were 8,000 white settlers \n By 1920, there were 23,000 Indians, 10,000 white settlers and 3 million Africans \n Indian Representatives were added to the governor's council

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Attitude of white settlers in Kenya (1890s-1920s)

The first white pioneers believed the whites to be superior and the blacks were slaves and cheap labour \n White settlers were attracted as there were 2 million acres of land for them \n They saw the black population as lazy and the farmers were guided to whip the labourers for petty offences \n They didn't want Indian Representatives on the council

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Why did Uganda become a protectorate?

After Mackinnon's intervention, the government had no choice. There was growing public support for Uganda becoming a protectorate (which it did in 1894) due to the threat of Germany. It was British duty to take Uganda and African expansion could have been undermined if they backed out. The government had more than enough resources to develop the land and see how much it's worth. \n Constructed Uganda Railway (Lunatic line) from Mombasa in 1896 (660 miles of track and cost £5m)

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What did Rhodes do in South Africa?

Annexed Bechanualand in 1884 \n Launched de Beers Company in 1888 with backing of Rothschild \n Had the biggest shares in the Transvaal mines (capital investment on 200k) \n Formed Rhodesia by leading 1.2k Br men into Rhodesia to quiet the Ndebele tribe \n Br protectorate formed in 1891 to prevent Portuguese acquisition \n PM of Cape Colony between 1890 - 1896

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Rhodes’ racist policy

Believed Br needed to civilise the world \n Used British SA company to suppress Shona and Ndebele people (nearly half the settlers died) \n In 1903, in Rhodesia introduced law that blacks would be killed for raping white women, not the same for black women \n Wanted an Empire from Cairo to Cape Colony

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What was the Jameson Raid?

In 1895, Rhodes thought Uitlanders in the Transvaal asked for the help of Cecil Rhodes and would rise up against the Boers. Rhodes directed a raid on 29th December 1895 which was headed by Dr Jameson and 500 mounted police. The raid failed, Jameson was imprisoned and Rhodes was forced to resign.

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What caused the 2nd Boer War?

Caused by dispute over Uitlander voting rights between Kruger and Milner due to the agreements of the Pretoria Convention. Milner ended the conference early sparking anger from Kruger. Milner, Chamberlain and Salisbury all agreed to protect Cape Colony at all costs. Capitalist investors put pressure on them.

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The role of Chamberlain

opposed Gladstone's proposal for Irish independence \n initiated the Uganda Railway \n owed some responsibility to Jameson raid \n Presided over success in the Boer War \n imperial preference failed in 1905

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Why was Chamberlain to blame for the Boer War?

Chamberlain appointed Milner as High Commissioner. Chamberlain allowed the Jameson Raid. Believe the War was necessary for future protection.

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Why was Milner to blame for the Boer War?

Stirred up anti-Boer feeling in the press which made negotiations difficult. Encouraged finances not to accept Transvaal loans. Rejected Kruger's proposal. Pressed for more troops to be sent in the summer of 1899.

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Why was Kruger to blame for the Boer War?

Denied Uitlanders rights but taxed them heavily including 5 shilling tax on dynamite \n Caused tension by buying guns off the French and Germans \n By 1899, Boers had 73 heavy guns and 25k troops \n Broke down talks at Bloemfontein \n In 1884, proposed railway through East Africa to avoid Br tariffs

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capitalism/investment’s involvement in the causes of the Boer war

Uitlanders were being exploited as Britain had 2/3 stake in the mines. Mine owners didn't care and pushed for limited reforms in the Transvaal.

Over half of the 74 million invested in gold mining was from the British. They would have gone to war to secure control. \n War cost 250 million and Br and SA's exports were only 15 million a year.

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What happened in the 2nd Boer war?

11th October 1899 - 31st May 1902 \n 107k Boer civilians entrapped \n Conditions were dire in concentration camps as 28k died (24k were children) \n Boers farms were destroyed \n Areas were covered in barbed wire

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Effects of the Boer War

Cost: 250 million \n 22k British soldiers died to jus 6k Boers \n Ended with Treaty of Vereeniging which promised eventual self government (under British sovereignty) and gave Boers 3 million to rebuild \n In 1904, Milner agreed to import Chinese labourers confirming War was for gold mines not Uitlanders. Led to liberal victory in 1906 and rise in anti-imperialism

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When was the British Union of South Africa formed?

1902 with Cape Colony, Transvaal, Natal and Orange Free State

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When was Southern and Northern Nigeria converted into British colonies?

1906 and 1900 - unified in 1914

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When did Uganda become a formal Protectorate?

acquired in 1888 and became formal Protectorate in 1894

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What was in the second Indian Councils Act? 1892

  • increased the number of legislative member to a minimum of 10 and max of 16

  • legislative council had 6 officials, 5 nominated non-official

  • members were allowed to ask questions in the Council but not allowed the discuss the answer

  • could discuss the annual financial statement but couldn't vote on it

  • 5/24 members in 1892 were Indian

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consequences of Boer war

damage to union government

  • milner refused to take responsibility and blamed the Br government

  • 1904, allowed the importing of Chinese labourers ( putting economic before Uitlander rights)

  • chinese labourers were flogged - outcry

growth of anti-imperialism

  • capitalist critiques and methods of barbarism

  • turn to the left

revolution in British foreign policy

  • splendid isolation over

  • Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)

  • Anglo-French Entente (1904)

  • Anglo-Russian Convention (1907)

  • accepted US dominance in North America

growth of anglo-german antagonism

  • creation of National Service League and Imperial Maritime League

  • Germany became the focus of imperial fervour and patriotism

  • A Nation at Arms (tory publication) suggested that there were German spies

defence review

  • national efficiency

  • behind the other european powers

legacy for SA policies

  • afrikaners dominated party system and pushed for dominons rights

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How did Britain took control of Ashantiland? When was it annexed?

In early 1890s, British demand the king to turn over the remaining of his empire as a protectorate. He refused and the British forced him out of his throne in 1896. 1900 after a final Ashanti uprising. Incorporated into the Gold Coast Colony in 1902

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In early 1890s, British demand the king to turn over the remaining of his empire as a protectorate. He refused and the British forced him out of his throne in 1896. 1900 after a final Ashanti uprising. Incorporated into the Gold Coast Colony in 1902

In 1890 they made and agreement with the French, recognising French claim to Madagascar. They established direct rule in the North in 1900 and in the South in 1906.

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