A&P final

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152 Terms

1

diaphragm

main muscle of inspiration

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2

diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor

muscles of inspiration

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3

internal intercostal and abdominal muscles

muscles of expiration

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4

elastic recoil

allows lungs to contract during quiet breathing

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5

hydrogen ions

main stimulus for the central chemoreceptors

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6

tidal volume

volume of air during quiet breathing (500ML)

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7

vital capacity

TV + IRV + ERV about 4800 ml males and 3100 ml females

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8

inspiratory center

sets basic rate of breathing in medulla oblongata

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9

Boyles Law

states volume and pressure are inverse proportion to each other

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10

Henrys Law

states diffusion is based on partial pressure and how soluble a gas is

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11

Daltons Law

the law of partial pressure

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12

surfactant secreting cell

reduces surface tension (type II cell)

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13

pleural cavity

contains the lungs, lined by parietal pleura

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14

carbonic anhydrase

enzyme that converts CO2 and H2O into H2CO3: most important enzyme in respiration

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15

respiratory membrane

composed of two layers of simple squamous and basement membranes

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16

atmopheric pressure

760 mmHg at sea level: force that pushes air into lungs during inhalation

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17

simple squamous epithelium

type I alveolar cell. thin epithelial tissue

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18

intra-pleural pressure

pressure that is always negative. more negative during inhalation

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19

heme

iron containing part of hemoglobin that O2 attaches to

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20

primary bronchi

bronchus that go to each lung

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21

secondary bronchi

bronchus to each lobe of the lung

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22

alveolar duct

duct that leads to the alveoli

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23

alveolar sacs

the air sacs where most O2/CO2 exchange occurs

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24

hylem

part of lung where artery/vein/primary bronchus enter

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25

intra-pulmonary pressure

pressure inside alveoli: negative during inspiration/positive exhalation

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26

Hering/Breuer reflex

prevents over inflation of lung

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27

Alveoli PO2

104 mmHg PO2

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28

alveoli and pulmonary vein PCO2

40 mmHg PCO2

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29

pulmonary artery PO2

40 mmHg PO2

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30

pulmonary artery PCO2

45 mmHg PCO2

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31

Bohr effect

CO2 loading causes O2 unloading (at the tissues: internal respiration)

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32

Haldane effect

O2 loading cause CO2 unloading (at the alveoli: external respiration)

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33

pleural membranes

visceral and parietal pleura

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34

lack of surfactant

respiratory distress of newborn is caused by

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35

trans-pulmonary pressure to = 0

pneumothorax causes:

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36

mouth

digestion of starches by Amylase

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37

stomach

digestion of proteins by enzyme Pepsin

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38

small intestine

major site of digestion, and absorption of nutrients

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39

large intestine

removal of water and final part of digestive system. Bacterial Flora

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40

liver

produces bile, detoxification of blood, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, protein

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41

gall bladder

storage and concentration of bile until secretion

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42

pancreas

secretes major part of digestive enzymes: Lipase, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Amylase

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43

stomach

production of HCl, Pepsin, start of protein digestion

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44

entero-endeocrine cells

produce the hormones Gastrin, Secretin, GIP, VIP, CCK

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45

parietal cells of the stomach

produce HCl and Intrinsic factor

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46

chief cells of the stomach

produce Pepsinogen (inactive form of Pepsin)

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47

hepatocytes

liver cells are also called

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48

liver cells (hepatocytes)

produce bile

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49

cephalic, gastric, intestinal

three phases of digestion

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50

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

parts of small intestine

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51

caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal

parts of large intestine

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52

pulmonary hypertension

MPAP greater than 25 mmHg

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53

pulmonary arterial hypertension

MPAP greater than 25 mmHg and PCWP/LVEDP less than 15 mmHg

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54

pulmonary venous hypertension

PCWP>12mmHg due to high left atrial pressure

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55

>250 dyne x sec/cm5 or 3 woods unit

PVR is what for PH and PAH

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56

group 1

pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic, heritable, drug/toxin induced

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57

group 2

PH caused by left heart disease

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58

group 3

PH caused by lung disease

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59

group 4

chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)

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60

group 5

PH: miscellaneous causes

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61

mucosa

innermost layer

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62

esophagus

stratified squamous

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63

stomach

simple columnar

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64

small intestine

simple columnar with microvilli (brush border)

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65

large intestine (colon)

simple columnar with goblet cells

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66

anus

simple columnar that transitions to stratified squamous

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67

muscularis interna

thin layer of smooth muscle

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68

submucosa

areolar connective, innervated, large blood supply and lymphatics

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69

muscularis externa

smooth muscle (limited skeletal muscle)

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70

esophagus

upper 1/3 skeletal muscle, middle 1/3 transition to smooth muscle, lower 1/3 all smooth muscle

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71

stomach

inner oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle (3 layers)

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72

small intestine

inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle

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73

large intestine

inner circular and partial outer longitudinal called "taenia coli"

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74

serosa

outermost layer, composed of connect tissue and simple squamous (visceral peritoneum)

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75

salivary glands

parietal gland, sublingual glans, submandibular gland

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76

parietal gland

secretes amylase and mucus, major source of salivary amylase

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sublingual gland

mostly secrete mucus

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78

submandibular gland

secretes amylase and mucus

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79

parotitis (mumps)

viral infection of parotid gland causes

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80

parasympathetic nervous system (cranial nerves)

facial nerve VII, glossopharangeal nerve IX, vagus nerve X

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81

facial nerve VII

innervates salivary glands, taste receptors anterior 2/3 tongue

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glossopharangeal nerve IX

innervates salivary glands, involved in swallowing reflex, taste posterior tongue

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83

vagus nerve X

innervates esophagus (swallowing) and innervates the stomach. increase digestive motility and secretion in the stomach

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84

enteric nervous system

within the GI tract, connects with parasympathetic nerves to control digestive activity

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85

fundus

dome shaped upper part of stomach

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86

cardia (cardial orifice)

surrounds the lower esophageal sphincter

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87

body

main part of the stomach

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88

greater curvature

attached to the greater omentum

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89

lesser curvature

attached to the lesser omentum

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90

angular notch

incisura angularis

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91

pylorus: antrum, canal, orifice

direct connection to the duodenum

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92

parietal cells

secrete HCl and intrinsic factor

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93

chief cells (zymogenic cells)

secrete pre-enzyme pepsinogen

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94

mucosal cells

secrete mucin

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95

Pepsin

HCl converts pepsinogen to the active form of

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96

intrinsic factor

what is needed to absorb Vitamin B12

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97

peptides and poly peptides

pepsin digests protein into

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98

vagus nerve

stimulates release of HCl and Pepsinogen

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99

caphalic phase

smell, thought of food causes beginning digestive activity via vagus nerve

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100

gastric phase

food enters stomach. direct stimulus for continued gastric secretions

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