lecture 6

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all living things are made up of ____ classes of ______ molecules

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1

all living things are made up of ____ classes of ______ molecules

four, biological

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2

four classes of biological molecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

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3

______ are large molecules and are complex

macromolecules

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4

macromolecules are _____ built from monomers

polymers

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5

a polymer is a large _____ consisting of many _____ building blocks

molecule, similar

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6

repeating units serve as ______ blocks called monomers

building

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7

what life’s organic molecules are polymers

carbohydrates, protein, nucleic acids

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8

______ are specialized macromolecules that speed up _______ reactions such as those that make or break down polymers

enzymes, chemical

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9

A ________ reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through loss of a water molecule

dehydration

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10

polymers are disassembled to monomers by _____ reverse of dehydration reaction

hydrolysis

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11

each cell has ____ of different macromolecules

thousands

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12

Macromolecules vary among _____ of an organism, vary within a ______, and vary more between a species

cells, species

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13

a huge variety of _____ can be built from _____ set of monomers

polymers, small

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14

_____ serve as fuel and ____ material

carbohydrates, building

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15

carbohydrates include ____ and the _____ of sugars

sugars, polymers

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16

simplest carbohydrate is a _______ or _____ ______

monosaccharide, simple sugar

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17

______ macromolecules are polysaccharides—- _____ composed of many sugar building blocks

carbohydrate, polymers

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18

sequences of ____ and protein products document _____ background of an organism

gene, hereditary

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19

_____ sequences of DNA molecules passes from parents to offspring

linear

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20

extend the concept _____ ______ relationships between species

molecular genealogy

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21

_____ and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and ______

genomics, applications

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22

Genomics and proteomics ____ genes by learning base sequences

decode

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23

analyzing ____ sets of genes or comparing ____ genomes of different species is called genomics

large, whole

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24

_____ of large sets of proteins including sequences is called ______

analysis, proteomics

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25

____ is single stranded

RNA

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26

______ pairing can also occur between two RNA molecules or parts of the ____ molecule

complementary, same

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27

Thymine is replaces by ___ so A and ___ pair

uracil, U

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28

____ molecules have two polypeptides spiraling around an imaginary axis forming a double ____

DNA, helix

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29

double helix arrangement referred to as ____

antiparallel

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30

one DNA molecule includes many ____

genes

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31

adenine pairs with ___

thymine

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32

Guanine pairs with ____

cytosine

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33

_____ pairing makes it possible to generate two _____ copies of each DNA molecule in a cell preparing to _____

complementary, identical, divide

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34

_____ nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester linkage

adjacent

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35

adjacent nucleotides consist of _____ group that links sugars of two _______

phosphate, nucleotides

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36

adjacent nucleotides create a _____ of sugar phosphate units with ______ bases as appendages

backbone, nitrogenous

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37

______ are linked together to build a polynucleotide

nucleotides

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38

nucleotide = ______ + _______ group

nucleoside, phosphate

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39

RNA sugar is

ribose

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40

DNA sugar is

deoxyribose

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41

Two families of nitrogenous bases

pyrimidines and purines

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42

______(cytosine, thymine, and uracil) have a single _____ membered ring

pyrimidines, six

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43

______ (adenine and guanine) have a six membered ring fused to a ______ membered ring

purines, five

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44

nucleoside = _______ base + _______

nitrogenous, sugar

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45

portion of nucleotide without phosphate group

nucleoside

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46

each polynucleotide is made of ______ called nucleotides

monomers

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47

polymers called _______ (component of nucleic acids)

polynucleotide

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48

_____ provides direction for own replication

DNA

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49

DNA directs _____ of messenger _____

synthesis, RNA

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50

synthesis of RNA and through mRNA control of protein synthesis

gene expression

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51

_____ acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information

nucleic

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52

amino acid sequence of a ______ is programmed by a unit of inheritance called a _____

polypeptide, gene

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53

consists of DNA

gene

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54

most proteins go through _____ stages on their way to a stable structures

several

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55

protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins

chaperonins

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56

affects protein structure

physical and chemical conditions

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57

loss of native protein structure

denaturation

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58

denatured proteins are biologically

inactive

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59

slight change in _____ structure can affect proteins structure and ability to ______

primary, function

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60

an inherited disorder results from a single _____ acid substitution on the protein _______

amino, hemoglobin

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61

primary protein structure

unique sequence of amino acids

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62

secondary protein structure

consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain

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63

tertiary protein structure

determined by interactions among various side chains (R group)

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Quaternary protein structure

results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains

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65

collagen

fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptides coiled like a rope

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66

hemoglobin

globular protein consisting of four polypeptides

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67

Specific _____ of proteins result from their intricate three dimensional structure

activities

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68

proteins consist of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled in its ______ shape

unique

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69

_____ of amino acids determines proteins dimensional structure

sequence

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70

a proteins structure determines how it ____

works

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71

function of a protein usually depends on its ability to _______ and ______ to some other molecules

recognize, bind

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72

amino acids are linked by _____ bonds called peptide bonds

covalent

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73

organic molecules with amino and carboxyl groups

amino acid monomers

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74

amino acids differ in their properties due to differing side chains

r groups

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75

function is support

structural proteins

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function: response of cell the chemical stimuli

receptor proteins

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function: movement

contractile and motor proteins

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responsible for the undulations of cilia and flagella

motor proteins

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79

responsible for the contraction of muscles

actin and myosin proteins

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80

function: coordination of an organisms activities

Hormonal proteins

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81

function: storage of amino acids

storage proteins

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function: transport of substances

transport proteins

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function: protection against disease

defensive proteins

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84

function: selective acceleration of chemical reactions

enzymatic proteins

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85

account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells

proteins

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86

some proteins speed up ______ reactions

chemical

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87

proteins are constructed from the same set of

20 amino acids

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88

unbranched polymers built from these amino acids

polypeptides

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89

characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

lipids

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90

a component in animal cell membranes and a precursor from other steroids are synthesized

cholesterol

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91

two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol

phospholipids

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92

two fatty acid tails are ______ but the phosphate group and its attachments form a ______ head

hydrophobic, hydrophilic

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93

fats constructed from two types of smaller molecules

glycerol and fatty acids

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94

three carbon alcohol with hydroxyl group attached to each section

glycerol

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95

consists of carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton

fatty acid

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96

three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage creating

triacylglycerol or triglycerides

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97

vary in length (carbons) and in the number of locations of double bonds

fatty acids

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98

have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds

saturated fatty acids

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99

process converting unsaturated fats by adding hydrogen

hydrogenation

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100

humans and other mammals store long term food reserves in

adipose tissue

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