RXRS Midterm

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Addiction

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120 Terms

1

Addiction

the compulsive using of drugs in spite of terrible consequences

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2

Drug Abuse

Timeline: tolerance ~> Dose escalation ~> psychological & physical dependence Defn: the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs

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3

Angalgesic (opium poppy)

euphoric effects and pain reliever

<p>euphoric effects and pain reliever</p>
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4

Anodyne "Devil's apple"

a plant for relieving pain (less potent than analgesic)

<p>a plant for relieving pain (less potent than analgesic)</p>
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5

Antibacterial (atun tree bark)

killing or preventing growth of bacteria

<p>killing or preventing growth of bacteria</p>
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6

Anthelminthic (camphor)

killing and expelling intestinal worms

<p>killing and expelling intestinal worms</p>
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7

Antimicrobial (hollyhock)

killing microbes and bacteria

<p>killing microbes and bacteria</p>
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8

Antipyretic (absinthe)

reducing fever

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9

Antitussive (lavender)

relieving cough

<p>relieving cough</p>
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10

Astringent (olive leaf)

causing contraction of tissues, prevents bleeding/secretion

<p>causing contraction of tissues, prevents bleeding/secretion</p>
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11

Carminative (mint)

facilitating cunctation of gas from stomach

<p>facilitating cunctation of gas from stomach</p>
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12

Catharic (Indian cinnamon flowers)

powerful purgative

<p>powerful purgative</p>
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13

Demulcent (Valerian flower)

soothing and relieving irritation

<p>soothing and relieving irritation</p>
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14

Diuretic (St. John's Wort)

increasing the amount of urine

<p>increasing the amount of urine</p>
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15

Expectorant (Licorice flower)

increasing fluid in bronchial secretions, aids the expulsion

<p>increasing fluid in bronchial secretions, aids the expulsion</p>
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16

Hypotensive (thyme flower)

reducing blood pressure

<p>reducing blood pressure</p>
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17

Psychoactive substances

influences thought or emotion through biochemical action upon the central nervous system

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18

Perception-Altering (substance: betel nut)

-stimulates central nervous system -creates a dream like state -shaman/guide to the spirit world required (distorted perception, altered thought, varied mood)

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19

Mood-altering

-stimulate brain reward pathways -highly prized substances due to effects -shaman/guide to the spirit world not required

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20

Classical Hallucinogens

induce perceptual and cognitive distortions

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21

Euphoric

producing an experience or affect of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness

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22

Hallucinogens

produces distinct alterations in perception, sensation of space and time, and emotional stress

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23

Psychedelic

manifest a hidden but read aspect of the mind

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24

Dissociative

feelings of detachment from one's body; produce analgesia, amnesia, and catalepsy

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25

Deliriants

induce a state of delirium, characterized by extreme confusion and inability to control one's actions

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26

Entactogen

Promote feelings of emotional closeness

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27

Entheogens

-promote mystical experiences -euphoriant drugs produce feeling of well-being -high affinity for all serotonin receptors

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28

Stimulant

euphoric effects

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29

Depressants

barbiturates, valium, alochol, benzodiazepines

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30

Narcotics

-all forms of tobacco -drugs that get rid of pain and dull the senses

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31

Aphrodisiac

love drug, increase libido

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32

Diagnosis

art of identifying a disease; analysis of a condition

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33

Homopoeic

portrayed living creatures or their parts that the wearer wanted to assimilate

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34

Phylactic

protective, especially defending from disease

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35

Apotropaic

beliefs centers arounds turning away harms or evil influences, observances were practical out of vague superstition or tradition; good luck charms, gestures (cross-fingers) and offerings

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36

Theomorphic

form or likeness of a deity

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37

Gloios

sweat from olympians

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38

Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Greek athletes ingested raw animal Parts: Herbal concoctions wine potions Hallucinogens Animal hearts

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39

Toxicomania

insane desire for poisonous or intoxicating substances

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40

Pharmakon (Medicine & Poison)

means "drug" and can imply either "remedy" and "poison"

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41

Evergeikos

-beneficial to health

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42

Epivlavis

harmful to the health

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43

Theriaka

antidote to poison

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44

Sanguine

the blood, related to the element of air and the livers, dictated courage, hope, and love

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45

Choleric

yellow bile -related to the element of fire and the Gall Bladder, could lead to bad temper and anger

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46

Melancholic

Black bile, associated with the element of earth and the spleen, would lead to sleeplessness and irritation if it dominated the body

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47

phlegmatic

phlegm, calm; sluggish; unemotional

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48

Hygiene

Personal hygiene was a major concern in the day-to-day life of Romans

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49

Murena

after a gladiator was killed and his body removed from the arena, munera (special vendors) would sell the still-warm blood to the crowd

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50

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism

condition which causes hallucinogenic effects after the consumption of exotic fish

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51

Blue Malva

blond hair -effects of hair dye

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52

Black malva

brown hair -effects of hair dye

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53

Madder Root

red hair -effects of hair dye

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54

Clove

auburn hair -effects of hair dye

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55

Anesthetics

a substance that induces insensitivity to pain

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56

Pneuma

three vital energies; breath of life, associated with the lungs

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57

Pneuma Zoticon

vital force, associated with circulation and cellular metabolism

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58

Pneuma Physion

natural force which impacts the four humors

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59

paraphernalia

equipment, apparatus, or furnishing used in or necessary for a particular activity

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60

Hashish

concentrated resin from the Cannabis plant

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61

Ayurveda (Ayurvedic medicine)

A comprehensive system of medicine, derived largely from ancient India, that places equal emphasis on the body, mind, and spirit, and strives to restore the body's innate harmony through diet, exercise, meditation, herbs, massage, exposure to sunlight, and controlled breathing.

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62

Kayacikitsa

general medicine, medicine of the body

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63

Kaumara-bhrtya

pediatrics

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64

Salyatantra

surgical techniques, extraction of foreign objects

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65

Salakyatatra

treatments of ailments affecting ears, eyes, nose, mouth (ENT)

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66

Bhutavidya

pacification of possessing spirits, and the people whose minds are affected by possession

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67

Agadatantra

toxicology, which includes the science of poisons

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68

Rasayanatantra

rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan, intellect and strength

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69

Vajikaranatantra

aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and sexual pleasure

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70

Madya

alcoholic beverages; classified by the raw material and fermentation process

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71

Cacao

stimulant; consumed by Aztec & Mayan emperors in ceremonial rites

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72

Yerba Mate

stimulant-equivalent to the caffeine in coffee

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73

Guarana

a seed containing four times as much caffeine as coffee beans; southern tributaries of the Amazon

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74

Ayahausca

is an entheogenic brewed concoction made out of banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients

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75

Pulque

(n) a fermented milky drink made from the juice of agave plants from Mexico

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76

Balche

Honey wine brewed by the Maya and associated with Acan

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77

Tepache

mildly alcoholic beverage of indigenous Mexico, made by fermenting pineapple

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78

Tejuino

beverage traditional to Jalisco, maize-based beverage that gets its start from fermented masa

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79

Chicha

fermented beverages from the Andes, it can be made of maize, manioc root, cassava, or fruits

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80

Cauim

Native beverage of Brazil, similar to chicha

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81

Tiswin

fermented, ceremonial beverage of southwest United States and northern Mexico, made with maize and saguaro sap

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82

Tobacco

sacred to Natives -seen as a source of wealth -when scarce, tribes of N. America would say "the tribe is poor"

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83

Voyages of Discovery

from 1550-1850 CE Large-scale transoceanic trade; global movement of people, materials and ideas

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84

Rum

an alcoholic liquor distilled from sugar-cane residues or molasses -popular source of commodity

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85

Grog

diluted rum; intended to keep the peace -2 parts water : 1 part Sugar and lime juice

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86

Bezoar

"Goa stone" ; stony material found in ruminants' stomachs

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87

Tonic

a substance with medicinal properties; intended to restore or investigate

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88

Potions

a drink that contains medicine, poison, or is imbued with magical or supernatural powers

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89

Elixers

Clear and sweet tasting combination that has water and alcohol for oral use to deliver a drug

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90

Compulsive Consumption Behavior

inappropriate behavior, typically excessive and clearly disruptive to the lives of the consumer and their families

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91

Epidemic

affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time

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92

Endemic

a characteristic of a particular population, environment, or region; the problem is present, but occurs in relatively low frequency

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93

Pandemic

an epidemic that is geographically widespread

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94

Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) 1842

peace treaty signed by China and Great Britain, ending the Opium War but also greatly restricting Chinese control over their own trade with western countries

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95

Treaty of Tientsin

Ended second Opium War, instituted Extra Territoriality, and okayed European settlements

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96

Treaty of Aigun

a separate treaty between China and Russia, Russia gained the left bank of the Amur River, which pushed the northern border south from the Stanovoy mountains

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97

Convention of Peking

  1. Where the treaties are signed. More cities opened for trade, China lost more land to GB France and Russia, more debt to Britain, legalized opium trade, freedom of religion and rights for Christians

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98

Spheres of Influence

a region dominated and controlled by an outside power

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99

Drug Rehabilitation

the first modern rehabilitation centers, funded by the government, were established in China; these were established to educate the people about the dangers of opium and to help addicts to become clean

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100

Individual intemperance

Lifestyle, often seen as having a lack of self-control, immoderate in consumption

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