Unit 1: Chemistry of Life

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Nucleic acids

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As basic building blocks of life, all living organisms use nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as a variety of small molecules such as metabolites, messengers, and energy carriers.

40 Terms

1

Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids are macromolecules essential for the storage and transmission of genetic information in living organisms. Made up of simple unit of nucleotides.

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2

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is essential for building cells and producing certain hormones in the body.

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3

Carbohydrates

________ are organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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4

Haemoglobin

________ is a molecule in the blood that helps distribute oxygen to the tissues in the body.

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5

Hydrolysis

________ is when polymers can also be broken down into monomers.

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6

Monosaccharides

A monosaccharide is the simplest form of carbohydrate, consisting of a single sugar molecule..

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7

DNA

DNA is a molecule that carries genetic instructions. It has a double helix structure made of nucleotides containing adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine..

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8

Monomers

Monomers are the individual building blocks of a polymer.

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9

concentration of hydrogen

The ________ ions in a solution will indicate whether it is acidic, basic, or neutral.

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10

Electrons

________ are negatively charged (-) particles.

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11

RNA

________ is essential for protein synthesis.

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12

Protons

________ are positively charged (+) particles.

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13

Neutrons

________ are neutral particles as they donot carry any electric charge.

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14

Phospholipids

________ contain two fatty acid "tails "and one negatively charged phosphate "head.

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15

Polymers

________ are chains of building blocks in macromolecules.

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16

Glucose

________ is an important part of the food we eat, and it is the product made by plants during photosynthesis.

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17

Amino acids

________ are building blocks of proteins.

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18

Side chain polarity

________ affects whether an amino acid is more hydrophobic or more hydrophilic.

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19

Polysaccharides

A polysaccharide is a complex carbohydrate composed of multiple monosaccharide (simple sugar) units linked together.

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20

Acidic solution

A solution is acidic if it contains a lot of hydrogen ions (H+).

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21

Atoms

________ are the unit of life and are the building blocks of the physical world.

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22

pH scale

The ________ is logarithmic and represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration.

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23

alpha helix

An alpha helix is a common secondary structure in proteins, characterized by a tightly coiled, helical shape.

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24

fatty acid

A fatty acid is a type of molecule that serves as a building block of lipids, which are a class of biological molecules that include fats, oils, and phospholipids.

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25

disaccharide

A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharide molecules joined together through a chemical bond known as a glycosidic bond.

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26

polypeptide

A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

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27

triglyceride

A triglyceride is a type of lipid (fat) and is composed of three fatty acid molecules chemically linked to a glycerol molecule.

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28

Proteins

Proteins are large molecules made of amino acids, serving various roles such as enzymes for chemical reactions, structural support, and signaling in the body.

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29

Lipids

Lipids are a diverse group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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30

ph scale

The ________ or alkalinity of a solution can be measured using a pH scale.

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31

covalent bond

A(n) ________ is formed when electrons are shared between atoms.

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32

Adhesion

The ________ contributes to another property of water known as surface tension.

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33

Elements

Elements are pure substances that consist of only one type of atom.

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34

Just add water

To break up the disaccharide and form two monosaccharides

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35

Lipid Saturation

The extent of saturation in a lipid can affect its structure and function.

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36

Cohesion

Cohesion refers to the tendency of molecules of the same substance to be attracted to each other.

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37

Surface Tension

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38

beta-plated sheet

A beta-plated sheet is a protein secondary structure where adjacent amino acid chains align in a sheet-like formation, held together by hydrogen bonds.

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39

Neutrons

________ are uncharged particles.

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40

Phospholipids

A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule composed of two fatty acid chains, a glycerol backbone, and a phosphate group.

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