First Chinese Dynasties, Indian Empires, and Greece

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Monarchy

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Monarchy

king/queen, one ruler

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Oligarchy

rule by a few

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Theocracy

religious rule/rulers

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Aristocracy

lords and nobles based on birth

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Democracy

People vote on every issue

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Republic

People vote for representatives who vote on the issues for them

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Feudalism

economic philosophy that is about self sufficient (Small kingdoms)

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Autocracy

Autocart- govt with one person w/ absolute power

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Meritocracy

jobs- merit

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Unitary system

one strong centralized govt, (one place the power is from)

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Confederate system

(Confederation): loose alliance of states

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Federal System

(Federalism):divides/separates power

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Socialism/Communism

Govt own everything

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Totalitarianism

one person w/ all the power

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Communism

commune- one community: no private property (everyone owns everything)

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Enfranchisement

free and give right to vote

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Suffrage

right to vote

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Amend

to change

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Veto

override a law that was passed

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Ratify

to give formal consent

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Tariff

tax

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Mauryan Empire

The first empire in india, founded by Chandragupta Maurya

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Asoka

Candragupta’s grandson who brought Mauryan to its greatest heights as 3rd ruler

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Gupta Empire

India’s second empire, founded by Chandragupta I

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Patriarchal

Headed by the eldest male

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Chandragupta Maurya

Founder of the Maurya dynasty

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religious toleration

acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs

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Chandragupta I

First Gupta emperor that came through power by marrying a daughter of influential royal family

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Chandragupta II

Third ruler of Gupta empire and known for heroic qualities

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Kalidasa

One of India’s greatest writers. Most famous play- Shakuntala

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Aryabhata

famous mathematician and astronomer

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Silk Road

vast network of caravan routes (trade route)

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Loess

fertile deposit of windblown soil

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Oracle bones

one of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods

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Mandate of Heaven

in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority

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Dynastic Cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties

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filial piety

respect shown by children for their parents and elders

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Daoism

a philosophy based on the ideas of Laozi(Chinese) who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao (way)

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Legalism

A chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order

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Yin and Yang

In chinese thought, the two powers that govern the natural rhythms of life

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civil service

the administrative departments of a government- especially those in which employees are hired on the basis of their scores and examinations

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Assimilation

the adoptions of a conqueror’s culture by conquered people

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Confucius

Confucius was a philosopher and teacher who lived from 551 to 479 B.C.E. His thoughts on ethics, good behavior, and moral character were written down by his disciples in several books, the most important being the Lunyu. Confucianism believes in ancestor worship and human-centered virtues for living a peaceful life.

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Shi Huangdi

the first Qin Emperor, was a brutal ruler who unified ancient China and laid the foundation for the Great Wall. China already had a long history by the time its states were unified under its first emperor. Settlements in the Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys had grown into an agricultural civilization

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Laozi

founded Taoism; holds that humans and animals should live in balance with the Tao, or the universe. Taoists believe in spiritual immortality, where the spirit of the body joins the universe after death.

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Han Dynasty

known its long reign and its achievements, which included the development of the civil service and government structure; scientific advancements such as the invention of paper, use of water clocks and sundials to measure time; Eastern and Western Han

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Liu Bang

rose in rebellion against the Qin Empire in the late Qin Dynasty. He conquered territories and defeated rival armies to emerge as the Emperor of the Han Empire; established the Han Dynasty

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Wudi

best remembered for his military conquests; made Confucianism the official state doctrine of China

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Wang Mang

overthrew the Han dynasty and proclaimed the Hsin (New) dynasty in ad 8. Opposition from landowners and officials forced him to withdraw reforms and the dynasty, which divides the Early Han from the Later Han, ended with his assassination.

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Dorian

The Dorian people are traditionally acknowledged as the conquerors of the Peloponnese; no written documents, more spoken

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Homer

presumed author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, (Trojan War) two hugely influential epic poems of ancient Greece

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epic

poetic story

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myth

stories about how the world was created and why certain things happen

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Trojan War

Classical Mythology. a ten-year war waged by the confederated Greeks under Agamemnon against the Trojans to avenge the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, by Paris, son of the Trojan king Priam, and ending in the plundering and burning of Troy.

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Mycenaean

new writing system; lived mostly on mainland Greece and were the first people to speak the Greek language

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Minoan

ost-wax, nielo, and granulation; lived on the Greek islands and built a huge palace on the island of Crete

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polis

a city state in ancient Greece, especially as considered in its ideal form for philosophical purposes.

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acropolis

a citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill.

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tyrant

a ruler who seized power unconstitutionally or inherited such power

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helot

a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta, intermediate in status between slaves and citizens

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Draco

Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death

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Draco’s Code

a written law code enforced by Draco in Athens near the end of the 7th century BC; its composition started around 621 BC. It was written in response to the unjust interpretation and modification of oral law by Athenian aristocrats

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