Unit 2 Chemistry Test

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alkali metals

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alkali metals

1st group 1+ charge

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alkaline earth metals

2nd group 2+ charge

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transition metals

3rd -12th group varying charges, including Sn and Pb, excluding Ag and Cd and Zn

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Ag charge

1+

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Cd and Zn charge

2+

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halogens

17th group 1- charge

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noble gases

18th group no/neutral charge

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metalloids

along the staircase, excluding Al some of the characteristics of metals

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metals

left to the staircase generally solid, shiny, lustrous, ductility, malleable, conductive

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nonmetals

right to the staircase opposite/no characteristics of metals

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wavelength

distance between 2 identical points on consecutive waves λ

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frequency

the number of waves that pass a fixed point in unit time ν

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energy

energy of a specific quantum of energy E=hν frequency times planck's constant

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energy and frequency relationship

directly related

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energy and wavelength relationship

inversely related

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wavelength and frequency relationship

inversely related

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speed of light equation

c=λν

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<p>Bohr&apos;s Model</p>
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<p>Bohr&apos;s Model</p>

Bohr's Model

circular rings electrons follow a fixed path energy levels n=1 to n=7

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<p>Quantum Mechanical Model (QMM)</p>
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<p>Quantum Mechanical Model (QMM)</p>

Quantum Mechanical Model (QMM)

different shaped areas with a 90% chance of finding an electron electrons do not follow fixed path energy levels n=1 to n=7

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Orbit

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

we cannot know both the position and speed of a particle with perfect accuracy, the more we know about the position the less we know about the momentum and vise versa

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Orbital

an area where there is a 90% chance of finding a given electron different shapes = s, p, d, f energy levels n=1 to n=7

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S Orbital

spherical starts at 1st energy level (n=1)

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node

an area with no electrons/low probability of electrons being found

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P Orbital

dumbbell/lobe starts at 2nd energy level (n=2) each level contains 3 degenerate orbitals

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degenerate orbitals

orbitals having the same energy levels but they are positioned differently

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D Orbital

clover leaf starts at 3rd energy level (n=3) each level contains 5 degenerate orbitals

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F Orbital

starbursts starts at 4th energy level (n=4) each level contains 7 degenerate orbitals

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energy levels

the fixed amount of energy that a system described by quantum mechanics

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valence electrons

outer electrons in an atom

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core electrons

inner electrons in an atom

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<p>orbital diagram</p>
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<p>orbital diagram</p>

orbital diagram

a type of notation which illustrates an atom's electron distribution and electron spin within orbitals.

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Hund's rule

electrons must be unpaired before they are paired in a sublevel

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Pauli Exclusion

no more than two electrons can occupy the same orbital and two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins

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Aufba Principle

electrons fill from lowest to highest energy

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period similarities

same number of core electrons

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group similarities

same number of valence electrons

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Trends with atomic radius

decreases as you go the the left and increases as you go down

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Trends with ionization energy

increases as you go the the left and decreases as you go down

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atomic radius and IE relationship

inversely related

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atomic radius and reactivity relationship

directly related

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reactivity and IE relationship

inversely related

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