mastering biology chapter 2

studied byStudied by 48 people
4.7(3)
get a hint
hint

polarity

1 / 84

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
85
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
85 Terms
1
New cards

polarity

-forces between molecules that determine how they group together and interact -creates molecules with charged ends

New cards
2
New cards

electronegativity

-the tendency of an atom to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond

New cards
3
New cards

ion

-charged atom or molecule -positive (+) or negative (-)

New cards
4
New cards

ionic bond

-formed by the transfer of electrons -one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion -held together by charge differences

New cards
5
New cards

atom

basic unit of a chemical element

New cards
6
New cards

molecule

-2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds -smallest unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction

New cards
7
New cards

covalent bond

equally shared pair of outer-shell electrons between 2 atoms

New cards
8
New cards

octet

tendency of an atom to have 8 valence electrons

New cards
9
New cards

double covalent bond

-2 shared pairs of electrons between atoms -limits atoms to a plane

New cards
10
New cards

triple covalent bond

-3 shared pairs of electrons between molecules -limits atoms to a line

New cards
11
New cards

polar attraction

weak attraction between 2 polar molecules

New cards
12
New cards

nonpolar attraction

weak attraction between nonpolar molecules caused by neighboring molecules disturbing each other's electron movements

New cards
13
New cards

polar covalent bond

-bond between 2 different atoms, one positive and one negative -results from the unequal sharing of electrons

New cards
14
New cards

nonpolar covalent bond

-atoms share electrons equally -no charge separation to the molecule

New cards
15
New cards

water molecule

-can hydrogen bond to 4 other water molecules -contains positive (H+) & negative (O-) poles (different electronegativity values) -held together by polar covalent bonds because O- in water molecules pulls harder on the electrons -has a slightly negative charge near O and a slight positive charge near H -many properties occur due to its attraction among polar molecules

New cards
16
New cards

hydrogen bond

-holds water molecules together -H+ of one water molecule is attracted to an O- atom of another water molecule -form, break, and reform with great frequency because they are weak

New cards
17
New cards

hydrogen ion (H+)

hydrogen atom that gains or loses an electron

New cards
18
New cards

dissociation of water molecules

process in which a hydrogen ion shifts from one water molecule to another

New cards
19
New cards

hydroxide ion (OH-)

-water molecule that lost a hydrogen ion -has an extra electron -negatively charged

New cards
20
New cards

hydronium ion (H3O+)

-water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion -has an extra proton -positively charged

New cards
21
New cards

cohesion

-sticking together of 2 like molecules (water) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)

New cards
22
New cards

adhesion

-sticking together of 2 unlike molecules (water and another substance) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)

New cards
23
New cards

capillary action

the ability to flow upward against the force of gravity due to cohesion and adhesion

New cards
24
New cards

surface tension

-the attraction between water molecules at the surface -measure of the force required to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

New cards
25
New cards

specific heat

-amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost before a substance changes temperature -water resists temperature change due to it absorbing energy by disrupting hydrogen bonds before evaporation can occur

New cards
26
New cards

heat of vaporization

-cooling of a surface as a liquid evaporates -while sweating, fastest-moving water molecules break every hydrogen bond and escape, carrying away the heat

New cards
27
New cards

density

-measure of how compact atoms or molecules are within a substance -amount of mass in a given volume -ice is less dense than water because the molecules in its lattice are further apart

New cards
28
New cards

solvent

-liquid that dissolves the solute -water is a universal solvent due to its polarity

New cards
29
New cards

solute

-particle or liquid that gets dissolved in the solvent

New cards
30
New cards

solution

mixture in which a substance dissolves into another

New cards
31
New cards

compound

a substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements

New cards
32
New cards

mixture

a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together

New cards
33
New cards

suspension

mixture in which the particles are spread throughout the liquid without dissolving in it

New cards
34
New cards

homogeneous

uniform throughout a mixture

New cards
35
New cards

heterogeneous

not uniform throughout a mixture

New cards
36
New cards

pH scale

-measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions -logarithmic (powers of 10)

New cards
37
New cards

acid

-increases hydrogen ion concentration -pH less than 7

New cards
38
New cards

base (alkali)

-increases hydroxide ion concentration -pH more than 7

New cards
39
New cards

neutral

-equal concentration of H+ and OH- -pH of 7

New cards
40
New cards

buffer

-accepts H+ when they are in excess and donates H+ when their concentration drops in a solution -helps maintain pH of bodily fluids (homeostasis)

New cards
41
New cards

domain

-level of classification larger than a kingdom -3 main domains

New cards
42
New cards

Bacteria/Archaea Domain

contains prokaryotic organisms (found in the Monera Kingdom)

New cards
43
New cards

Eukarya Domain

contains eukaryotic organisms (found in the Protista, Plantae, Fungi, or Animalia Kingdoms)

New cards
44
New cards

biological hierarchy

-atom -molecule -organelle -cell -tissue -organ -organ system -organism -population -community -ecosystem -biome -biosphere

New cards
45
New cards

organelle

cellular structure specialized to perform a distinct function

New cards
46
New cards

cell

-Basic unit of structure and function in all living things -Compose unicellular/multicellular organisms -First level of life

New cards
47
New cards

tissue

material in plants/animals consisting of specialized cells and their products

New cards
48
New cards

organ

-self-contained -does a specific job in an organism -made up of certain tissues

New cards
49
New cards

organ system

group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions

New cards
50
New cards

organism

an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form

New cards
51
New cards

population

all organisms that constitute a specific species in a specified habitat

New cards
52
New cards

community

all the populations in a given area

New cards
53
New cards

ecosystem

a system formed by the interaction of a community (biotic factors) with their physical environment (abiotic factors)

New cards
54
New cards

biome

naturally occurring community of flora & fauna occupying a major habitat

New cards
55
New cards

biosphere

parts of the land, sea, & atmosphere in which organisms are able to live

New cards
56
New cards

characteristics of life

-universal genetic code -response to stimuli -growth & development -energy processing -evolutionary adaptation -reproduction -homeostasis -cells

New cards
57
New cards

universal genetic code

-All organisms use DNA molecules to carry genetic information from generation to generation -DNA & RNA store information necessary to live, grow & reproduce

New cards
58
New cards

response to stimuli

Organisms adjust & respond to changes in their internal/external environments

New cards
59
New cards

growth

increase in size

New cards
60
New cards

development

process of change during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism

New cards
61
New cards

energy processing

-The use of chemical energy to power an organism's activities & chemical reactions -Organisms obtain & use materials/energy

New cards
62
New cards

metabolism

-All the chemical reactions within an organism -Catabolism and anabolism

New cards
63
New cards

evolutionary adaptation

-An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms' ability to survive & reproduce in specific environments -Over generations, living things evolve

New cards
64
New cards

reproduction

-The reproduction of offspring through sexual/asexual processes -All living things make new similar living things

New cards
65
New cards

asexual reproduction

-Type of reproduction in which a single parent reproduces by itself -Produces offspring exactly the same as itself

New cards
66
New cards

sexual reproduction

-Type of reproduction in which cells from 2 parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism -Combination of information from both parents results in diversity

New cards
67
New cards

Homeostasis

-Process by which organisms maintain stable conditions during changes in the environment -Ensures that an organism's body functions at optimal condition

New cards
68
New cards

microscope base

Supports the microscope.

New cards
69
New cards

arm

Used to carry the microscope.

New cards
70
New cards

stage

Platform where the slide with the specimen is placed.

New cards
71
New cards

stage clips

Holds the slide in place on the stage.

New cards
72
New cards

eyepiece

-Magnifies the image for the viewer. -Contains the ocular lens

New cards
73
New cards

revolving nosepiece

Contains the objective lenses -Rotates to allow the user to switch between different objective lenses.

New cards
74
New cards

Objective lenses

Low-, medium-, and high-power lenses that further magnify the specimen at different intensities.

New cards
75
New cards

Coarse adjustment knob

Large knob used for focusing the image under low-power (general focusing).

New cards
76
New cards

Fine adjustment knob

Smaller knob used for focusing the image with the medium- and high-power objectives (fine-tuning).

New cards
77
New cards

Diaphragm

Controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen.

New cards
78
New cards

Light source

Provides light for viewing the specimen.

New cards
79
New cards

control group

-does not receive the variable -provides a baseline for the conclusion of the experiment

New cards
80
New cards

experimental group

receives the variable that the researcher manipulates

New cards
81
New cards

variable

-any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types -only one variable per experiment in order to easily determine how the change affected the result

New cards
82
New cards

independent variable

-The experimental factor that is manipulated -Placed on the x-axis

New cards
83
New cards

dependent variable

-Variable directly affected by the independent variable -Placed on the y-axis

New cards
84
New cards

constant

-values that do not change during experiments -provides a baseline for the conclusion of an experiment

New cards
85
New cards

total magnification

power of the objective (4x, 10x, 40x) times the power of the eyepiece (10x)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 75 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1591 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(14)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 99 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 208 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)