Anatomy 1.7-1.8

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homeostasis

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26 Terms

1

homeostasis

the existence of a stable internal environment

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2

homeostatic regulation

adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis

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3

autoregulation

a process that occurs when a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts in response to some environmental change

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4

extrinsic regulation

a process that results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system

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5

nervous system

directs rapid, short-term, and very specific responses

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6

nervous system example

the hand is placed on a hot stove, this system responds by ordering specific muscles to pull your hand away

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7

endocrine system

releases chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream

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8

what 3 parts does a homeostatic regulatory mechanism consist of?

Receptor, control center, effector

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9

receptor

a sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change

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10

control center

receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor and sends out commands

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11

effector

a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus

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12

negative feedback

an effector activated by the control center opposes, or negates, the original stimulus

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13

thermoregulation

the relationship between heat loss which takes place mainly at the body surface, and heat production, which takes place in all active tissues, is altered

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14

hypothalamus

thermoregulatory control center, is a region of the brain

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15

What control center receives info from 2 sets of temp receptors (one in skin and one within the hypothalamus)?

hypothalamus

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16

Normal set point of body temp

37 c or 98.6 f

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17

positive feedback

a mechanism that increases a deviation from normal limits after an initial stimulus

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18

example of positive feedback

blood clotting after a cut, labor and delivery

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19

equilibrium

exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance

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20

dynamic equilibrium

each physiological system functions to maintain a state of equilibrium that keeps vital conditions within a normal range

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21

what effector organs are engaged when body temp drops below 37 c?

muscles

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22

what effector organs are engaged when body temp rises above 37 c?

sweat glands

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23

hypothermia

the body loses heat faster than it can produce heat

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24

hyperthermia

the body produces heat faster than it can lose heat

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25

where in the body are temp sensors located?

blood vessels

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26

What are examples of items that are homeostatically controlled?

blood pressure, blood volume, heart rate, blood ph, blood lipid levels, blood potassium levels

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