Unit 2: Music Fundamentals II: Minor Scales and Key Signatures, Melody, Timbre, and Texture

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96 Terms

1

Sharps

________ are used for the ascending scale.

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Enharmonic equivalent flats

________ are used for the descending scale.

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3

exact interval size

The ________ is described by quantity and quality.

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4

Heptatonic

________ scales- There are seven tones in the scale.

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5

Agogic

________ accent- A type of accent that is created by emphasizing the duration of a note.

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Major

________ and minor scales are heptatonic.

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7

Natural minor scale

The sixth scale in the rotation of church modes

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8

Three forms of minor

Natural, harmonic, and melodic

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9

Minor pentachord

Same first five notes that the three forms of minor start with

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10

Natural form of minor

No alterations to the key signature

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11

Harmonic form of minor

The 7th scale degree is raised both ascending and descending

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12

Melodic form of minor

The 6th and 7th scale degrees are raised

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13

Scale degree

Each step of the scale

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14

Tonic

The beginning pitch of the scale

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15

Scale degree 1

The tone on which the scale is built, the tonal center

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16

Scale degree 2

Above the tonic

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17

Scale degree 3

Halfway between the tonic and dominant

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18

Scale degree 4

A fifth below the tonic

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19

Scale degree 5

Perfect fifth above the tonic

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20

Scale degree 6

In between the subdominant and the tonic

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21

Scale degree 7

Half step below Do

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22

Parallel keys

Major and minor keys with different key signature but same tonic

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23

Relative keys

Major and minor scales that have the same pitches and key signature

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24

Three forms of minor

Natural, harmonic, and melodic

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25

Natural form of minor

No alterations to the key signature

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26

Harmonic form of minor

The 7th scale degree is raised both ascending and descending

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27

Melodic form of minor

The 6th and 7th scale degrees are raised

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28

Parallel keys

Keys that share the same tonic note but have different key signatures

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29

Closely related keys

Keys that have a small number of differences in their key signatures

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30

Distantly related keys

Keys that have a large number of differences in their key signatures

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31

Modulation

The process of changing from one key or tonal center to another

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32

Chromatic scale

Symmetrical scale with all pitches spaced a half step apart

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33

Heptatonic scales

There are seven tones in the scale

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34

Hexatonic scale

There are six tones in this scale

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35

Whole-tone scale

Each pitch is a whole step apart

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36

Pentatonic scale

Has five tones

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37

Major pentatonic

To build it, in the Circle of Fifths, start from C up to 5 consecutive pitches

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38

Relative minor pentatonic

It uses the same pitch as the C pentatonic but it starts on A

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39

Interval

The distance between two pitches

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40

Quality

Expressed by a number and determined by counting the distance between one letter name and the next letter name

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41

Diminished interval

An interval that is one-half step smaller than perfect or minor

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42

Augmented interval

An interval that is one-half step larger than major or perfect

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Consonant intervals

Stable

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44

Dissonant intervals

Unstable, the impression of activity or tension

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45

Inverted intervals

Intervals are inverted by transferring the lower note an octave higher or by transferring the higher note an octave lower

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46

Simple intervals

Intervals that are one octave or smaller in quantity

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Compound intervals

Intervals that are larger than an octave

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48

Timbre

Determined by how the sound is produced, what the instrument is made of, and the range of an instrument

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49

Melody

A logical progression of pitches and rhythms

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50

Conjunct

When the melody uses stepwise motion

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51

Disjunct

When the melody uses skipwise motion

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52

Motivic transformation

Changing or transforming the original motif by using these compositional devices

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53

Fragmentation

When a portion of a motif or a larger musical idea is used, often repeated, and/or varied

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54

Melodic sequence

A form of variation that refers to repeating the original motif starting on a different pitch

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Melodic inversion (Inversion)

The imitation of the melody performed upside down from the original melody

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Mirror inversion

If the inverted intervals are exact

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Retrograde

When the melody is played backwards

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58

Retrograde inversion

It plays the pitches of the original motif backwards and inverted

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Rhythmic transformation

Changes the motif or themes rhythm in order to vary it from previous statements of the motif

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Augmentation

A form of rhythmic variation where the pitches remain the same but the rhythms are equally lengthened (note values are made longer)

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Diminution

The opposite of augmentation, note values are made shorter

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Rhythmic displacement

Keeps the original rhythmic structure intact but moves it to a different place in the measure

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Texture

Basic element of music

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Monophonic

Has only one melodic line with no harmony or counterpoint

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Homophonic

Has one melodic line that draws your attention

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Chordal homophony

Every line or voice moving together with exactly the same or nearly the same rhythm

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Melody with accompaniment

Clearly has only one melodic line, but the harmony is not limited to chords moving together

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Ostinato

Short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout an entire composition or some portion of a composition

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Ragtime

An American style of music that was popular at the turn of the 20th century

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70

Sequence

The repeated melodic pattern at a different interval

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71

Heterophonic

Theres only one melody but different variations of it are being sung or played at the same time

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72

Alberti bass

An accompaniment figure played on a keyboard instrument with the left hand

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73

Walking bass

A style of bass accompaniment or line that creates a feeling of regular quarter-note movement, similar to the regular alternation of feet while walking

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Polyphonic (Polyphony, Counterpoint, Contrapuntal)

If more than one independent melody is occurring at the same time

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75

Imitative

If the individual lines are similar in their shapes and sounds

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Fugue

A form of composition popular in the Baroque era, in which a theme or subject is introduced by one voice and is imitated by other voices in succession

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Nonimitative

If the voice shows little or no resemblance to each other

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Countermelody

A secondary melody or line written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent melody

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79

Solo

A single performer or a passage that is to be performed by a single performer

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80

Soli

A directive to perform an indicated passage of a composition with an entire section of an ensemble

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Tutti

All members play

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82

Syncopation

The rhythmic displacement of the expected strong beat created by using dots, rests, ties, accent marks, rhythm, and dynamics

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83

Hemiola

A special type of syncopation where the bead is temporarily regrouped into twos

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84

Accents

Markings used in music notation to indicate emphasis or stress on a particular note or beat

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85

Regular accent

Indicated by a diagonal line above or below the note

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Strong accent

Indicated by a vertical line above the note

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Staccato accent

Indicated by a dot above or below the note, and it indicates that the note should be played short and detached

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Agogic accent

A type of accent that is created by emphasizing the duration of a note

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89

Fermata

A symbol used in music notation to indicate that a note or rest should be held longer than its written value

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90

Tenuto

A marking used in music notation to indicate that a note should be held for its full value

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91

Meter

The organization of beats into regular groups

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92

Duple meter

Two beats per measure

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Triple meter

Three beats per measure

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Quadruple meter

Four beats per measure

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95

Compound meter

A combination of duple and triple meter

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96

Irregular meter

It has an irregular grouping of beats

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