Cell Cycle

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interphase

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Biology

10th

70 Terms

1

interphase

-longest phase in the cell cycle -cells mature and perform normal functions (respiration/enzyme production) -consist of gap phase 1, synthesis phase, gap phase 2

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2

gap phase 1

-hormonal growth/development -number of organelles and the amount of cytoplasm in a cell increase

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3

synthesis

-DNA replicate -the chromosomes of a cell replicates

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4

gap phase 2

-cell makes organelles and substances it needs for cell division -more mitochondria, puff cytoplasm, more golgi

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5

homologous pair

-matching pair (size)

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6

chromosome

-one pair from mom and one from dad -they do not come together, they replicate -double rods -dominant/recessive -biggest to smallest (pair 1 is biggest)

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7

held together at centromere

where are chromosomes held together?

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8

dominant

a gene in one strand of DNA that is stronger than the corresponding gene in another strand of DNA

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9

recessive

a gene in one strand of DNA that is weaker than the corresponding gene in another strand of DNA

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10

a sex chromosome

what chromosome are girls missing?

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11

23

how many pairs of chromosomes do we have?

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12

23 on lineup

what # is a sex chromosome on lineup?

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13

mitosis

-the nucleus of a cell divides into 2 nuclei with identical genetic material -prophase, metephase, anaphase, telophase

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14

cell division

-occurs in 2 main steps, the division of a cell into 2 daughter cells with the same genetic material -mitosis and cytokinesis

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15

cytokinesis

cytoplasm of cell divides into 2 new cells (daughter cells)

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16

prophase

-sister chromotad condense to become thicker -nucleolus/ nuclear envelope disappear -micro-tubules assemble

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17

metaphase

-chromosomes are moved to center of cell by spindle fibers attached to centromeres

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18

anaphase

centromeres of each chromosome are pulled by spindle fibers toward end of cell

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19

telophase

new nuclei begins to form around chromosome mitosis is complete cell membrane begins to pinch cell in 2 as cytokinesis begins

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20

shortened and condensed become visible

what happens to chromosomes in prophase

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21

sister chromatin

identical copies formed by the DNA replication of a chromosome

<p>identical copies formed by the DNA replication of a chromosome</p>
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22

cleavage furrow

where an animal cell pinches

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23

cell plate

becomes the cell wall

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24

asexual

1 parent

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25

binary fission

-type of asexual reproduction -a parent cell divides, resulting in two identical cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell

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26

sexual

2 parents

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27

gamete

-pollen, sperm, egg -a reproductive cell of an animal or plant -not in asexual

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28

sperm and pollen

male gametes

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29

egg

female gamete

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30

somatic cell

all cells in body except gametes have 2 complete sets of chromosomes

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31

diploid

a cell like a somatic cell that has 2 complete set of chromosomes -2N

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32

fertilization

combination of genetic material

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33

zygote

result of fertilization and one celled organism

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34

haploid

  • single unpaired chromosomes -N -a cell like a gametes that has 1 complete set of chromosome

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35

body cell

egg + sperm =

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36

23 chromosomes

Human haploid

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37

46 chromosomes

human diploid

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38

23 chromsones

humans have how many chromosomes in gametes?

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39

mutation

what occurs if sister chromotatids are not identical

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40

not enough nutrients and oxygen

what happens if a cell is too big?

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41

spindle fiber

made of microtubule fibers

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42

germ cells

cells in the body that are specialized for sexual reproduction

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43

2N

symbol for diploid

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44

N

symbol for haploid

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45

meiosis

a form of cell division in which the daughter cells that are produced have half the number of chromosones as the parent cell

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46

meiosis 1 meiosis 2

what are the two parts of meiosis

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47

meiosis 1

separates homologous pairs of chromosomes

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48

meiosis 2

separates sister chromatid

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49

the chromosomes shorten, condense visible nucelar envelope dissapears and homologous pairs come close to eachother and form tetrads

what happens in prophase 1

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50

crossing over

homologous pairs may exchange through genetic material in a process called

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51

the homologous pairs line up next to eachother and spindle attaches

what happens in metaphase 1

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52

homologus pair seperates

what happens in anaphase 1

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53

the cell begins to divide with only one part of each pair in a new cell

what happens in telophase 1

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54

nuclear envelope begins to disappear again and we see the chromosomes

what happens in prophase 2

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55

the chromosomes lineup in center of each cell

what happens in metaphase 2

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56

the sister chromatid pull apart in each cell

what happens in anaphase 2

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57

the 2 cells begin to divide

what happens in telophase 2

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58

four haploid cells or gametes

cytokinesis during meiosis 2 results in?

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59

an animal cell will have a cleavage furrow while a plant cell will have a cell plate

what is the difference in cytokinesis in a plant cell vs animal cell

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60

no

are gametes identical

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61

gamete

haploid relate to

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62

body cell

diploid relate to

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63

a diploid

what is a zygote

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64

animal and plant cells

what type of cells does mitosis produce

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65

gametes

what type of cells does meiosis produce?

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66

homologous pairs

meiosis 1 deal with...

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67

sister chromatin

meiosis 2 deals with..

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68

tetrads

what forms in meiosis prophase 1

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69

there is no crossing over event

Tetrads do not appear in mitosis because?

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70

Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells(haploids) Mitosis is a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells(diploids)

meisosis vs mitosis

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