Module 14: Amino Acids

studied byStudied by 31 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Amino acids

1 / 35

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
36
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
36 Terms
1
New cards

Amino acids

are the building blocks of proteins

New cards
2
New cards

Amino acids

They belong to an important class of organic compounds that contain both the amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups

New cards
3
New cards

alpha – amino acids

what do you call the 20 most important amino acids?

New cards
4
New cards

the alpha – carbon atom

the amino and carboxyl groups are both attached to a single carbon atom, which is called?

New cards
5
New cards

prosthetic or variable group (side chain)

Attached to this carbon atom is a ________ in which the 20 standard amino acids differ from one another.

New cards
6
New cards

D-(dextrorotatory) or L-(levorotatory)

Amino acids may either be

New cards
7
New cards

D-serine

present in the forebrain

New cards
8
New cards

D-aspartate

present both in brain and periphery

New cards
9
New cards

Amino acids

may have positive, negative or zero net charge

New cards
10
New cards

ionic character

The solubility and melting points of amino acids reflect their

New cards
11
New cards

polar solvents such as water and ethanol

Amino acids are soluble in

New cards
12
New cards

nonpolar such as benzene, hexane, or ether

Amino acids are insoluble in

New cards
13
New cards

ALIPHATIC AMINO ACIDS

possess hydrocarbon side chains arranged in chain-like structures otherwise known as the monoamino – monocarboxylic acids

New cards
14
New cards

monoamino – monocarboxylic acids

other name for ALIPHATIC AMINO ACIDS

New cards
15
New cards

AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS

possess the benzene ring (C6H6) in their side chains

New cards
16
New cards

HYDROXYAMINO ACIDS

possess the hydroxyl group (-OH) in their side chains

New cards
17
New cards

ACIDIC AMINO ACIDS

possess an additional carboxyl group (-COOH)

New cards
18
New cards

AMIDES OF ACIDIC AMINO ACIDS

possess an amide group (-CONH2) in their side chains

New cards
19
New cards

BASIC AMINO ACIDS

possess an additional amino group (-NH2) in their side chains

New cards
20
New cards

SULFUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS

possess a thiol group (-SH) in their side chains

New cards
21
New cards

IMINO ACIDS

they have a cyclic imino group in their structure

New cards
22
New cards

NON – POLAR (HYDROPHOBIC) AMINO ACIDS

They prefer to contact with one another than water.

New cards
23
New cards

NON – POLAR (HYDROPHOBIC) AMINO ACIDS

Generally found buried in the interior of proteins, where they can associate with one another and remain isolated from water.

New cards
24
New cards

POLAR (HYDROPHILIC) AMINO ACIDS

They attached to water and are often found on the surfaces of protein.

New cards
25
New cards

Polar, neutral amino acids

have R groups that have a high affinity for water but are not ionic

New cards
26
New cards

Negatively charged amino acids

have ionized carboxyl group in their side chains

New cards
27
New cards

Positively charged amino acids

have a positive net charge of + 1 because their side chains contain a positive group

New cards
28
New cards

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

are those that cannot be synthesized by the body and are required in the diet

New cards
29
New cards

NON – ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

are those that can be synthesized by the body and need not be included in the diet

New cards
30
New cards

Histidine

is an essential amino acid for infants but not for adults

New cards
31
New cards

Cysteine and Tyrosine

are considered to be semi-essential amino acids

New cards
32
New cards

Cysteine and Tyrosine

They are required by premature infants and adults who are ill

New cards
33
New cards

aminoaciduria

result from impaired ability to transport defects typically result in the excretion of urine of increased amounts of one or more amino acids

New cards
34
New cards

Genetic defects in the metabolism of amino acids can

result in severe illness, if left untreated, result in mental retardation and early death.

New cards
35
New cards

ten essential L--amino acids

Human diets must contain adequate quantities of ______ to maintain health.

New cards
36
New cards

hormones

L- amino acids in low-molecular weight peptides play additional roles as?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 476 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(19)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4873 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(49)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard62 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard91 terms
studied byStudied by 449 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard105 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard156 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard105 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)