Anatomy week 4 (skeletal and muscular systems)

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What is the skeleton divide into

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1

What is the skeleton divide into

axial and appendicular portions

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axial skeleton

skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and thorax

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3

how many bones does the axial skeleton have

80 bones

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cranial bones (8 bones )

surrounds the brain frontal (1) ethmoid (1) sphenoid(1) parietal (2) temporal(2) occipital (1)

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facial bone (14 bones)

mandible (1) vomer(1) - nose maxillae (2) inferior nasal conchae (2) - nose nasal (2) palatine (2) -nose zygomatic (2) lacrimal (2)

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auditory ossicles (6 bones)

sound transmission

  • malleus (2), incus (2), stapes (2)

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hyoid bone

assist in swallowing , does not articulate with any other bone, it attaches muscles of tongue, neck and pharynx

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8

vertebral column

general structure of vertebrae

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vertebrae

33 individual bones that interlock with each other to form the spinal column.

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10

how much structure of vertebrae

7 processes 1 spinous 2 transverse 2 superior 2 inferior articular processes (their facets; sites of articulation with adjacent vertebrae)

  • arch is composed of 2 laminae and 2 pedicles

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laminae

between spinous and transverse process

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pedicles

body to transverse process

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vertebral foramen

for spinal cord

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14

body (centrum)

thick anterior region

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cervical region

7 vertebrae (c1-C7)

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transverse foramen

runs through each transverse process, it is for vertebral arteries, veins, and nerves

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transverse process

one of two processes that extend from each vertebra and provide the point of articulation for the ribs

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atlas (c1)

no body or spinous process articulates with skull (occipital condyles) allows flexion and extension of neck (yes nod)

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occipital condyles

unique bony structure connecting the cranium and the vertebral column

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axis (c2)

knoblike dens (odontoid process) on body projects superiorly, articulating with the atlas, also creates pivot (swivel) joint, allowing a no shake

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odontoid process

a toothlike process at the back of 2nd vertebra of the neck

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c3-c7

'typical' vertebrae

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23

thoracic region

12 vertebrae (t1-t12)

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thoracic of spine

posses long, slender spinous processes, body and transverse processes have costal facets

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costal facets

articulation with ribs

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lumbar region

5 vertebrae (L1-L5)

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lumber of spine

large thick bodies; short, heavy spinous processes, provide support for the upper body; limited rotation

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sacrum

5 fused vertebrae which articulates with ilium and 5th lumbar vertebrae

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coccyx

3-5 but mostly 4 fused vertebrae (tailbone)

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intervertebral foramen

lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae

  • exit hole for spinal nerves

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spinal nerves

mixed nerves that interact directly with the spinal cord to modulate motor and sensory information from the body's periphery

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curvature of the spinal column

"S shape" lateral view

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cervical and lumbar sections

concave posteriorly (convex anteriorly)

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thoracic and sacrum sections

convex posteriorly (concave anteriorly)

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scoliosis

lateral bend of spinal column

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kyphosis

an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column

  • extensive dorsal thoracic curve (hunchback)

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lordosis

an abnormal inward curvature of the vertebral column lumbar curve (sway back)

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thoracic cage

'bony thorax'

  • protective cage around vital organs of thorax attachment point for muscles of the neck, back, chest, and shoulder

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sternum

"breast bone:"

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sternum three bones

manubrium: superior body: middle diploid process: inferior

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how many ribs does each have

female have 12 pairs men have....

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42

ribs

articulate posteriorly with corresponding thoracic vertebra

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superior rib

7 pairs of true ribs, directly attach anteriorly to sternum from the costal cartilage

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costal cartilage

hyaline

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inferior

5 pairs of false ribs, -8 to 10 attach to sternum indirectly from costal cartilage of rib 7

  • rib 11 and 12 not attached to sternum (floating ribs; embedded in muscle)

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appendicular skeleton

upper and lower limb girdles; 126 bones

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pectoral girdle

a skeletal support to which the forelimbs of vertebrates are attached

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pectoral girdle: 1) clavicle

collar bone

  • articulates with manubrium and acromion process

  • connects axial and appendicular skeleton

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manubrium

the broad upper part of the sternum

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acromion

the outermost point of the spine of the shoulder blade

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pectoral girdle: 2) scapula

'shoulder blades'

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scapula: a) spine

runs along posterior surface

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scapula: b) acromion process

articulates with clavicle

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clavicle

bone linking the scapula and sternum

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scapula: c) glenoid fossa

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scapula: d) coracoid process

attachment points for chest and upper arm muscles

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pelvic girdle

paired (os coax) or hips

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pelvic girdle fused bone

ilium (superior) ischium (inferior) pubis (anterior)

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pelvic girdle: 1) sacroiliac

synovial joint between sacrum and ilium

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pelvic girdle: 2) pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint uniting the anterior medial os coxae (between pubic bone)

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pelvic girdle: 3) acetabulum

points of fusion between the three coal bones

  • synovial ball and socket joints for head of femur

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femur

the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton; extends from the pelvis to the knee

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cartilaginous

of or relating to cartilage

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