Biology Chapter 11, 13, and 14

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How did Gregor Mendel get into the study of heredity?

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1

How did Gregor Mendel get into the study of heredity?

Being in charge of a monastery garden

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2

What plant did Gregor Mendel use to preform his experiments?

Peas

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3

What does the part of the plant that produces pollen contains what gametes?

Male Reproductive Cells; Sperm

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4

The female portion of the flower contains what gametes?

Eggs

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5

What is the process in which male and female reproductive cells join?

Fertilization

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6

What type of pollination do pea flowers usually preform?

Self-Pollination

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7

What process include sperm cells in pollen fertilizing the egg-cells in the same flower?

Self-Pollination

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8

What type of breeding includes plants producing offspring identical to themselves?

True-Breeding

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9

In Gregor Mendel's pea plants what traits were the basis of his experiments?

Tall vs Short and Green Seeds vs Yellow Seeds

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10

What type of pollination was Gregor Mendel attempting to preform with the pea plants?

Cross Pollination

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11

How did Gregor Mendel prevent self pollination in the pea plants?

By cutting away the pollen producing male reproductive structures

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12

How did Gregor Mendel cross pollinate the pea plants?

By dusting the pollen from another plant onto the flower

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13

What are the original pair of plants called?

The P generation

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14

What does the P in the P generation stand for?

Parental

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15

What are the offspring of the P generation?

The F1 genreation

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16

What does the F in the F1 generation stand for?

First Filial

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17

What does Fillia/us mean in Latin?

Son/Daughter

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18

What are the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits?

Hybrids

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19

What were the seven traits Gregor Mendel studied?

Seed Shape, Seed Color, Seed Coat Color, Pod Shape, Pod Color, Flower Position, and Plant Height

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20

What happened to the characters of the parents after the cross in the F1 generation?

The character of one parent was expressed while the other seemed to have disappeared

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21

What was the first conclusion Gregor Mendel reached after his set of experiments?

Biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from generation to the next

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22

What do scientists today call the chemical factors that determine traits?

Genes

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23

What are the different forms of a gene called?

Alleles

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24

What was Gregor Mendel's second conclusion after his set of experiments?

The principal of dominence

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25

What is the principal of dominence?

Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive

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26

In what case will a recessive allele be expressed?

When the dominant allele isn't present

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27

What allele was dominant in pea plant height?

Tall

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28

What allele was recessive in pea plant height?

Short

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29

What allele was dominant in pea plant seed color?

Yellow

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30

What allele was recessive in pea plant seed color?

Green

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31

How did Gregor Mendel answer the question, "Had the recessive alleles disappeared or were they still present in the F1plants?"?

He allowed all of the hybrid plants to produce an F2 generation

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32

How did Gregor Mendel make the F2 generation?

By crossing the F1 generation with itself

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33

What does the F in F2 stand for?

Second Filial

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34

What discovery did the crossing of the F1 generation spark?

The traits controlled by the recessive alleles had reappeared

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35

What is Gregor Mendel's law of segregation?

Each individual that is a diploid has a pair of alleles for a particular trait

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36

What is Gregor Mendel's law of independent assortment?

The alleles of two (or more) different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another

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37

What principals can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses?

The Principals of Probability

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38

The gene combination that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a...

Punnet Square

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39

What are organisms with two identical alleles for a particular trait?

Homozygous

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40

What are organisms with two different alleles for a particular trait?

Heterozygous

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41

If a pea plant has a TT allele and another has tt what is the percent that the cross will result in a tall plant?

100% Tall

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42

If a pea plant has a TT allele and another has Tt what is the percent that the cross will result in a Tt allele?f

50% Tt

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43

If a pea plant has a tt allele and another has Tt what is the percent that the cross will result in a short plant? What about a Tt allele?

50% Short 50% Tt

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44

What are the cases in which some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive?

Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance

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45

What are the cases in which some traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes?

Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Traits

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46

What is incomplete dominance?

The hererozygous phenotype is somwhere in betweent eh two homozygous phenotypes (Ex. Red Flower (RR) White Flower (rr) Pink Flower (Rr))

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47

What is codominance?

Both alleles contribute to the phenotype; both alleles are expressed separately (Ex. White Chicken (CC) Black Chicken (cc) Speckled Chicken (Cc))

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48

What are multiple alleles?

More than two possible alleles exist in a population

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49

What are polygenic traits?

Traits that are controlled by two or more genes

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50

What is a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes?

Diploid

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51

How are diploid chromosomecounts sometimes represented?

2N

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52

Gametes are what type of cell?

Haploid

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53

How many sets of chromosomes do haploid cells have?

1

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54

How are haploid chromosome counts sometimes represented?

N

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55

How many chromosomes do human diploid cells have?

46

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56

How many chromosomes do human haploid cells have?

23

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57

What is meiosis?

The process in which a diploid cell divides into four haploid cells

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58

How is meiosis pronounced?

MY-osis

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59

What occurs during interphase 1 of meiosis?

Cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes

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60

What occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis?

Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad

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61

What occurs during metaphase 1 of meiosis?

Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes

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62

What occurs during anaphase 1 of meiosis?

The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell

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63

What occurs during telophase 1 and cytokenisis of meiosis?

Nuclear membranes form and the cell separates into two cells

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64

What occurs during prophase 2 of meiosis?

Meiosis 1 results in two haploid daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell

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65

What occurs during metaphase 2 of meiosis?

The chromosomes line up similarly to the metaphase stage of meiosis

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66

What occurs during anaphase 2 of meiosis?

The sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell

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67

What occurs during telophase 2 and cytokenisis of meiosis?

Four haploid daughter cells result

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68

In male animals the haploid gametes produced by meiosis are called...

Sperm

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69

In female animals the haploid gametes produced by meiosis are called...

Eggs

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70

What is the major difference between mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells

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71

A diploid cell that divides by mitosis gives rise to...

Two identical diploid daughter cells

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72

A diploid cell that divides by meiosis will divide how many times?

Twice

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73

A diploid cell that divides by meiosis gives rise to...

Four genetically different haploid daughter cells

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74

How do sexually producing organisms produce gametes?

Meiosis

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75

Does asexual reproduction involve mitosis or meiosis?

Mitosis

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76

Who discovered the principal of linkage?

Thomas Hunt Morgan

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77

In what year was the principal of linkage first discovered?

1910

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78

How did Thomas Hunt Morgan figure out gene linkage?

By researching fruit flies

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79

Each chromosome is...

A group of linked genes

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80

What sorts independently chromosomes or individual genes?

Chromosomes

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81

What are gene maps?

A map of the relative locations of genes on a chromosome

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82

How are gene maps produced?

Recombination Rates

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83

What are recombination rates?

Rates that measure the frequencies of crossing over between genes

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84

What is selective breeding?

Allowing only animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation

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85

How do humans use selective breeding?

By taking advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in plants, animals, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms

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86

What is hypbridization?

Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms

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87

Which is hardier hybrids or their parents?

Hybrids

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88

What is inbreeding

The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

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89

What is inbreeding used for?

To maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms

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90

What is the risk of inbreeding?

The crossing of the two genetically similar organisms can lead to a higher likelyhood of birth defects

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91

How can breeders increase genetic variation in a population?

Inducing Mutations

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92

What are the ultimate sources of genetic variation?

Genetic Mutations

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93

What are mutations?

Inheritable changes in DNA

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94

How do breeders increase the mutation rate?

By using radiation and chemicals

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95

What is polypoidy?

Organisms having extra sets of chromosomes

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96

Who tolerates polypoidy better animals or plants?

Plants

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97

How are changes made to DNA?

Extracting DNA froms cells, cutting it into smaller pieces, identifying the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and replicating it

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98

What is genetic engineering?

Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

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99

How do biologists extract DNA?

Opening cells and separating the DNA from the other cell parts

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100

How is DNA cut into easier to understand pieces?

Using restriction enzymes the DNA is cut in specific nucleotide sequences

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