AP Biology Unit 7

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Artificial selection

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34 Terms

1

Artificial selection

Evidence for evolution, humans pick the traits to see how population changes over time

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2

Fossil record

Evidence for evolution, see how things change every time through fossils

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3

Homology

Evidence for evolution, groups have the same structure because they share a common ancestor

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4

What factors determine genetic variability?

How often mutations happen, how quickly things reproduce

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5

Polygenic Trait

Trait that is controlled by multiple genes

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6

What are the 5 premises of HW Equilibrium?

no mutations, large population, no natural selection, random mating, no gene flow

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7

What causes allele frequencies to change?

Any of the 5 HW conditions not being met

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8

What is a gene pool?

all of the genes of the individuals in a population

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9

Why is genetic variability important?

Evolution comes to a stop without it

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10

Genetic drift

Changes in allele frequencies due to random, non-selective events

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11

Population Bottleneck

Type of genetic drift, sharp reduction in population size due to environmental events, such as floods and earthquakes

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12

Founder Effect

Type of genetic drift, small group leaves the population to start a new colony

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13

Gene flow

movement of genes causing change in allele frequency, gene flow from outside population increases genetic variation

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14

Directional selection

Shifts frequency of one or more traits in a particular population, e.x. body size

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15

Stabilizing selection

Acts against extremes so that average is favored

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16

Disruptive selection

Increases frequency of extreme phenotypes and may lead to new species

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17

Coevolution

Selection force comes from another living organism, organisms evolve to one another

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18

Mutualism

Each species has a benefit

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19

Commensalism

One organism benefits and the other doesn’t benefit nor is harmed

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20

Parasitism

One organism benefits and the other is harmed

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21

Sexual selection

The differing ability of individuals with different genotypes to acquire mates and reproduce

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22

What are the types of sexual selection?

Female choice and male competition

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23

Microevolution

How populations evolve

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24

Macroevolution

How species evolve

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25

What are the types of reproductive barriers?

Prezygotic which prevents fusion of sperm and egg and postzygotic which is when the zygote will die or be sterile

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26

Speciation

Formation of new species

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27

How does speciation occur?

Two populations become reproductively isolated, gene flow stops and allele frequency changes and prevents the groups from being able to reproduce

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28

Allopatric speciation

New species formed due to geographic barrier

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29

Sympatric speciation

Formation of new species without the geographic barrier

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30

Divergent evolution

Separation of one species into two or more

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31

Adaptive radiation

Rapid divergence into many species with varying adaptions due to unoccupied niches

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32

Dispersal

Spread of taxon over a large area

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Vicariance

Fragmentation of widely dispersed species

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34

Convergent evolution

Independent development of similar features in separate lineages

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