Anthropology Study Guide

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5 Subsistence strategies

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31 Terms

1

5 Subsistence strategies

Hunting and Gathering, Pastoralism, Horticulture, Agriculture, Industrialism

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2

Ethnocentrism

to view your own culture as superior to others

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3

Gender

The cultural construction of male and female characteristics

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4

Gender Roles

Tasks and activites a culture assigns to the sexes

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5

Division Of Labor

Allows two or more cooperating adults to focus or allow for the development of next generation

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6

Gender Stereotypes

Oversimplified ideas about the characteristics of genders

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7

Gender Stratification

Describs unequal distribution of rewards

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8

Third Gender

Concept when society labels an individual as neither male nor female

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9

Margaret Mead's Study

Visited different cultures in Papa New Guiena and showed that all gender roles are not the same across cultures.

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10

Arapash

Women and Men have the standard American Gender Roles

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11

Mundugmor

women are aggresive while men are passive

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12

Tchambuli

women are mangerial and men are dramatic

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13

Descent

Principles that link one generation to another in a systematic manner

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14

Descent Group

Group of Kin related by common descent by certain specifed rights and obligations across generations

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15

Lineage

Unilineal descent group in which relationships among memebers are known and demonstrable

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16

Lineage Types

Matrilineal and Patrilineal

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17

Matrilineal

based on or tracing descent through the female line

<p>based on or tracing descent through the female line</p>
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18

patrilineal

based on or tracing descent through the male line

<p>based on or tracing descent through the male line</p>
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19

Clan

Unilineal descent group in which relationships between members cannot be demonstrated and are simply assumed

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20

Moiety

Similar to a clan, but the common ancestor is blurred and often only mythical

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21

Bilateral Descent

line of descent traced through both the maternal and paternal sides of the family

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22

Exogamy

Rule that states you must marry outside a particular group

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23

endogamy

Rule that states you must marry withing a particular group

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24

Hypergamy

When a man marries a woman of a lower status or the woman marries up which elevates her position in society

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25

Polgyny

One man with multiple wives

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26

Polyandry

One woman with multiple husbands

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27

Monogamy

Having only one significant other at a time

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28

Serial Monogamy

One partner at a time but more than one throughout life

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29

Incest Taboo

Taboo on parent, child, or sibling romantic relationships but frequently extends beyond immediate family

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30

Parallel Cousins

Father to brother offspring or Mother to sister offspring depending on the type of lineage

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31

Cross Cousins

Father to sister offspring or Mother to brother offspring depending on the type of lineage

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