Lecture 12 Motivation and Goal Setting

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Motivation

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27 Terms

1

Motivation

The psychological forces within a person that determine: direction of behavior, intensity of effort (how hard we work), persistence displayed in meeting goals

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2

Extrinsic Motivation

Desire to perform an act to meet external demands/requirements… behavior performed to acquire rewards… motivation source is the consequence of an action

Classical conditioning- associated stimuli (Pavlov & food/bell) Operant conditioning- consequences

Social learning- models/imitation… Social cognition- influence of others on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

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3

Intrinsic Motivation

Desire to perform an act because it is satisfying/pleasurable in and of itself… motivation comes from performing the task/work… satisfies internal need/desire (biology, cognition, emotion, spiritual, moral)

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4

Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivators

The availability of extrinsic motivators reduces the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself… both rewards are important in enhancing motivation

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5

Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation

Approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need/reduce tension/arousal

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6

Need

A requirement of some material (food/water), it’s essential for survival

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Drive

Psychological tension/physical arousal arising when there is a need to motivate the organism to act in order to fulfil the need/reduce tension

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8

Primary drives

they involve needs of the body (hunger/thirst)

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9

Acquired (secondary) drives

Those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money/social approval

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10

Homeostasis

Tendency of the body to maintain a steady state

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11

Arousal Approach to Motivation

People are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing/decreasing stimulation

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Stimulus motive

motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation (curiosity)

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13

Sensation seeker

someone who needs more arousal than the average person

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14

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high… easy tasks require a high-moderate level while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level.

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Optimal level of arousal

We generally perform easy tasks well if we are highly aroused and accomplish difficult tasks well if we are not very aroused.

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Instinct Theories of Motivation

The notion that human behavior is motivated by certain innate patterns of action that are activated in response to stimuli (not the same as genetic tendencies)… rejected theory because behavior is diverse/unpredictable

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Achievement Goal Theory

Goals/perceptions are the main factors in motivation… goals: outcome- defeating others/winning, and task orientation- improving on skill/past performances… perception- how does one compare…

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18

Attribution Theory

Focuses on how people explain their successes/failures… stability factor- permanent/unstable… locus of causality- cause of the behavior is external /internal… locus of control- what can be controlled/not

<p>Focuses on how people explain their successes/failures… stability factor- permanent/unstable… locus of causality- cause of the behavior is external /internal… locus of control- what can be controlled/not</p>
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19

Goal

the objective of an action… in regards to sports performance- specified level of proficiency on a task within a specified time limit

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Human behavior, including athletic performance, can be causally directed by consciously setting goals

the most important goals were: 34% improving performance, 24% winning, 19% fun/enjoyment

athletes preferred: 20% very difficult goals, 60% difficult goals, 14% moderate goals

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Primary characteristics of a goal

Content: difficult? clear? timing? - difficult yet attainable goals are more effective than easy/moderate goals… specific goals are more effective than vague(“do your best”)… short term goals help better attain long-term goals… setting goals improves performance by .34

Intensity: how committed are you? important to you? you must accept the goal to be effective… Timely feedback is needed for goal setting to be effective.

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Why hasn’t goal setting worked as well in sport research?*

1. The goals have not been difficult 2. Assigned goals were not accepted 3. Subjects in the “do your best” group set specific goals 4. Task complexity 

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Moderator of Goal Attainment

Feedback- product/outcome, level of ability- elite, task complexity- simple > complex, physical self-esteem- high>low

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Putative mechanisms*

Directs attention (Focused on the goal), Regulates intensity of effort (how hard you are going to push), Regulates duration of effort ((how long you are going to push) (especially in adversity)), Encourages reconsideration of technique (changing the way you study if you have a C but want an A)

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25

Goal Theory

Specific, difficult but realistic, accepted by the person, used to evaluate performance, linked to feedback and rewards, set by individuals or groups

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Practical applications

Coach increase performance, fitness, strength, agility, % body fat, Clinical exercise physiologist, Nutritionist – weight loss, Physical therapy – injury rehabilitation, Sports psychologist/consultant

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Summary*

Goal setting in sports and exercise is an idea that, in theory, should work. However, the natural feedback with movement and the competitive nature of sports, especially for elite-level athletes, may mitigate the potential effectiveness of formal goal setting because everyone does it informally anyway.

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