final exam - virology

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Which organisms can be infected by viruses?


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includes questions from all tests (that could be converted). Only half questions from ch 2 because there were missing questions on the key

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Which organisms can be infected by viruses?

All of them

True or False: Viruses are small enough to pass through a 0.2 micron filter


Do all viruses have envelopes?


What was a major advancement in virology that allowed us to examine the lifecycle of viruses?

Development of viral tissue culture

How far back in time did viruses originate

4 billion years ago

Viruses that are enveloped obtain this structure from which part or parts of the host cell?

Plasma Membrane

What proteinaceous structure connects the capsid to the envelope


Highest to lowest order of the rank system

Realm, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Baltimore Classification System is based off of what viral component

Viral nucleic acid within the virion

What enzyme must all RNA viruses bring into the infected cell with them for the life cycle?

RNA-dependent RNA pol

In the Hershey-Chase Blender Experiments the S35-labled protein of the bacteriophage was found where in the progeny phages?

Not found


Genetically stable virus that differs from the parent strain phenotypically


Virus that contains mutations from the parental strain

Baltimore class that uses a reverse transcriptase

Class 6

Baltimore class that can immediately be translated by ribosomes

Class 4

Viral tropism

Types of cells that a virus can infect

Viral tropism is controlled by

Cell surface receptors

What percentage of the human genome consists of defunct endogenous retroviruses


What are some ways viruses resolve the competition between host mRNA and viral mRNA for translational machinery

degrading host mRNAs, contain elements in viral mRNA to increase affinity to ribosome, cleave and obtain host cell mRNA caps

What amendment did Fredricks and Relman make to Koch's and River's criteria for linking a virus to a particular disease

Detection of viral nucleic acids in diseased organs but not in unaffected organs

In a standard clinical virology laboratory setting, which techniques are routinely performed for rapid identification

elisa and pcr

Most antivirals are designed to impair which component of a virus

viral enzymes

What do cells do natural killer cells recognize

cells that show reduced expression of mhc I on their surface

What two major cell types can eliminate viral cells through apoptosis

Natural killer and CD8+ T-cells

Innate immunity

general non-specific defense against pathogens

secondary immune response

immunological memory


uptake and killing of microbes

What do pathogen recognition receptors do

identify viral pathogens

What do Toll-like receptors do

they are sensors capable of detecting characteristics unique to a virus

Dendritic cells

Express high levels of mhc i and ii molecules and function as scouts to identify pathogens at the body's surfaces and mucosal sites

How do viruses evade host defense

mutate outer surface proteins, latency, inactivate cytokine signaling, inactivate immune cells

Major function of MHC II

presents peptides derived from engulfed viruses

What happens when ds-RNA-activated protein kinase (cellular altruism) is activated in a virally infected cell

Viral RNA degradation and host RNA degradation

Virally infected cell will present foreign antigens on where?


Virally infected cells are recognized by which cell type?


If you were performing a Viral Detection ELISA, what would be coated on your 96-well dish

Antibody specific for viral pathogen

How are live-attenuated viruses produced

a virus is immediately repeatedly cultured in nonhuman cultured cells or animals

What results would indicate the highest viral levels in a RT-PCR

Ct of 10


total number of casesI


new cases

Toll-like receptors recognize viral


What proteins are secreted following the activation of TLRs


Three corners of the epidemiological triangle

host, agent, environment

longitudinal study

study that examines individuals over time

Once ingested polioviruses initially invade which two tissues

peyers patchers or tonsils

what percentage of cases are asymptomatic in polio


Where does the polio lifecycle occur

the cytoplasm

What would happen in the rna genome of poliovirus was transfected or delivered directly in to mouse cells

Rna genome would be translated by host ribosomes into a polyprotein

IRES stands for

Internal Ribosomal entry site