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Anticoagulation

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113 Terms

1

Anticoagulation

The use of drugs to render the blood sufficiently unable to create a clot or mass to discourage thrombosis

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2

Arrhythmia

Variation from the normal rhythm, especially of the heartbeat

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3

Arterial monitoring line (A line)

A catheter inserted into an artery and attached to an electronic monitoring system to directly measure arterial blood pressure

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4

Catheter

A rubber, plastic, metal, or glass tube used to remove or inject fluids into a person

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5

Comminuted

Broken or crushed into small pieces

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6

Cyanosis

A bluish discoloration of the sin and mucous membranes caused by excessive concentration of reduced hemoglobin in the blood

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7

Dialysis

The diffusion of solute molecules through a semipermeable membrane passing form the side of higher concentration to the side of lower concentration; a method used in cases of defective renal function to remove elements from the blood that are normally excreted in the urine (hemodialysis)

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8

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

A graphical record of the heart’s electrical action derived by amplification of the minutely small electrical impulses normally generated by the heart

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9

Endotracheal tube (ETT)

A hollow tube, approximately 10 inches long, with an inflatable cuff near one end that is inserted and positioned in the trachea. After the tube has been positioned, the cuff is inflated to maintain the tube’s position so the patient can breathe through the tube

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10

Fistula

Any abnormal, tube-like passage within body tissue, usually between, two internal organs or leading from an internal organ to the body surface

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11

Fowler position

A position in which the head of the patient’s bed is raised 18 to 20 inches above level, with the knees flexed

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12

Gastrointestinal (GI)

Pertaining to the stomach and intestines

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13

Hyperventilation

Abnormally prolonged and deep breathing

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14

Hypoxia

Deficient oxygenation of the blood

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15

Infusion

The slow therapeutic introduction of fluid other than blood into a vein

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16

Infusion pump (IMED, IVAC)

An electronic device designed to automatically control the flow and rate of intravenous fluids into a patient

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17

International Normalized Ratio (INR)

A system established for reporting the results of blood coagulation or clotting tests

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18

Intravenous (IV)

Administration of fluids into a vein through the use of a steel needle or plastic catheter

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19

Intravenous therapy

The introduction of a fluid into a person’s vein; nutrients or medication may be supplied intravenously

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20

Mediastinum

the mass of tissued and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues

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21

Micturation

Voiding of urine

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22

Monitor

An apparatus designed to observe, report, and measure a given condition or phenomenon such as blood pressure, heart rate, or respiration rate

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23

Myocardial infarction (MI)

Necrosis of the cells of an area of the heart muscle resulting from oxygen deprivation caused by obstruction of the blood supply

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24

Nasogastric (NG) tube

A plastic tube usually inserted into a nostril and ending in the stomach. It can be used to remove fluid or gas from the stomach, monitor the digestive function of the stomach, administer medication or nutrients, or obtain specimens of the stomach contents

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25

Oximeter

A photoelectrical device that measure oxygen saturation of the blood (also known as a pulse oximeter)

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26

Patent

open, unobstructed, or not closed

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27

Pneomothorax

Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity resulting in collapse of the lung on the affected side

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28

Respirator

Same as ventilator

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29

Shunt

A passage or anastomosis between two natural vessels, especially between blood vessels

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30

Stoma

An artificial permanent opening, especially in the abdominal wall, that is made in surgical procedures

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31

Suprapubic

Above the pubis

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32

Swanz-Ganz catheter

A long intravenous tube inserted into a vein (usually the basilic or subclavian vein) and terminating in the pulmonary artery. A monitor attached to the catheter measures the pulmonary artery pressure and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; it permits evaluation of cardiac function

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33

Tachypnea

Very rapid respirations

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34

Tract

A longitudinal assemblage of tissue or organs—especially a bundle of nerve fibers having a common origin, function, and termination—or several anatomic structures arranged in a series and serving a common function

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35

Traction

the exertion of pulling or distracting force to maintain a proper position of bone ends or joints to facilitate the healing process

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36

Trendelenburg position

A position in which the patient lies supine with the head lower than the remainder of the body

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37

Turning frame

An apparatus that allows a patient’s position to be changed from supine to prone and vice versa by one person by maintaining the patient’s position between two frames of the apparatus; the patient may be turned horizontally or vertically depending on the apparatus used

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38

Ventilator

A mechanical apparatus designed to intermittently or continuously assist or control pulmonary ventilation (breathing); also referred to as a respirator

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39

Wedge pressure

Intravascular pressure measured by a catheter inserted into the pulmonary artery (Swan-Ganz catheter) to permit indirect measurement of mean left atrial pressure

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40

BWICU

Burn wound intensive care unit

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41

CCU

Coronary (Cardiac) care unit or critical care unit

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42

CSICU

Cardiac surgery intensive care unit

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43

CVICU

Cardiovascular intensive care unit

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44

ER or ED

Emergency room or emergency department

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45

GICU

Geriatric intensive care unit

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46

ICU

Intensive care unit or intermediate care unit

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47

MICU

Medical intensive care unit or mobile intensive care unit

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48

MSICU

Medical surgical intensive care unit

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49

NICU

Neurological intensive care unit or neonatal intensive care unit

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50

OHRU

Open heart recovery unit

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51

OIR

Overnight intensive recovery

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52

PACU

Postanesthesia care unit

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53

PICU

Pediatric or psychiatric intensive care unit

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54

RICU

Respiratory intensive care unit

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55

SCN

Special care nursery

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56

SICU

Surgical intensive care unit

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57

STICU

Surgical trauma intensive care unit

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58

TICU

Trauma intensive care unit

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59

TNCC

Trauma-neuro intensive care unit

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60

monitor the patient’s physiological state, provide ventilation and IV therapy, deliver oxygen, and remove fluids from the patient

The ICU has several equipment that ______

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61

Standard Adjustable bed

Most hospital beds can be adjusted using electrical controls. The controls may be located at the head or foot of the bed, on the side rail, or attached to a special cord so the patient can operate them independently.

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62

Turning Frame (Stryker Wedge Frame)

A __________ has an anterior and a posterior frame, each of which has a canvas cover. It has a support base that allows elevation of the head or foot ends of the frames or the entire bed. A pivot joint allows the patient to be turned in a horizontal plane from a prone to a supine position or from a supine to a prone position by one person. A similar device is the Foster frame. Indicated for patients need skeletal stability and alignment.

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63

Air-Fluidized Support Bed (Clinitron)

The _______ bed is a rectangular or ovoid bed that contains 1600 lb of silicone-coated glass beads called microspheres. Heated, pressurized air flows through the beads to suspend a polyester cover that supports the patient. This bed is indicated for: patients with several infected lesions or who require skin protection and whose position can’t be altered easily, also for those at risk of developing skin deterioration.

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64

Posttrauma Mobility Beds (Keane, Roto-Rest)

________ are designed to maintain a seriously injured patient in a stable position and maintain proper postural alignment through the use of adjustable bolsters. The bed oscillates from side to side, in a cradlelike motion, to reduce the amount of prolonged pressure on the patient’s skin. These beds are indicated for patients with restricted respiratory function or advanced or multiple pressure ulcers.

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65

Low Air Loss Therapy Bed

________ have several segmented and separated air bladders that allow the limited escape of air. The amount of air pressure in each bladder is individually controlled for each patient based on the size, weight, and shape of the patient, and the bed may be adjusted to several different positions. Indicated for patients who require prolonged immobilization with high risk of pressure ulcer development.

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66

Nasogastric Tube

Purposes of the ______ include removing fluid or gas from the stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, evaluating digestive function and activity in the GI tract, administering medications directly into the GI tract, providing a means to feed the patient, allowing treatment to the upper portion of the GI tract, and obtaining gastric specimens.

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67

Gastric Tube

A _______ (G tube) is a plastic tube that is inserted directly into the stomach through an incision in the patient’s abdomen. Exercise can be performed as long as the caregiver is aware of the presence of the G tube and avoids removing the tube.

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68

Intravenous Feeding, Total Parenteral Nutrition, and Hyperalimentation Devices IV

They are a means to achieve an appropriate metabolic state in patients who are unable to, should not, or refuse to eat.

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69

Intravenous Infusion Lines

______ are used to infuse fluids, nutrients, electrolytes, and medications; to obtain venous blood samples; and to insert catheters into the central circulatory system to monitor the physiologic condition of the patient

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70

Foley Catheter

The _____ is held in place in the bladder by a small balloon that is inflated with air, water, or sterile saline solution. The main channel allows the urine to drain, and the other channels

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71

External Catheter

The _______ (condom) is applied over the shaft of the penis and is held in place by an adhesive applied to the skin or by a padded strap or tape encircling the proximal shaft of the penis.

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72

Suprapubic Catheter

This catheter is inserted directly into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdomen and bladder.

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73

Chest Drainage Systems

_____ may be used to remove air, blood, purulent matter, or other undesirable material from the patient’s chest or pleural cavity. These tubes are inserted through an incision in the chest

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74

Nasal Cannula

The ______ has two plastic prongs (i.e., points or tips) that are inserted into the patient’s nostrils. This mode is used most frequently for patients who require low to moderate concentrations of oxygen

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75

Nasal Catheter

The uses of this catheter are similar to those described for the nasal cannula.

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76

Tent

a ____-like device that encloses the patient’s trunk and head may be used, especially if the patient is restless, very young, uncooperative, or extremely ill. The edges of the tent must be sealed to prevent the loss of oxygen,

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77

Tracheostomy Mask or Catheter

Some patients may have a temporary or permanent tracheostomy through which oxygen can be administered by a mask placed over the stoma or by a catheter inserted into the stoma

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78

Ostomy Devices

An ______ is a surgically produced opening in the abdomen to allow the elimination of feces.

Three primary types of collecting devices are used for patients with an ostomy; they are designated by the way they are attached to the patient.

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79

Mechanical Ventilators

Most ventilators, also known as respirators, currently use positive pressure to move or propel gas or air into the patient’s lungs.

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80

Volume-Cycled Ventilators

_______ are used primarily for patients who require long-term support. A predetermined volume of gas (“air”), which is dependent on the patient’s needs, is delivered during the inspiratory phase of respiration, but the expiratory phase remains passive

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81

Pressure-Cycled Ventilators

________ deliver a predetermined, established maximum pressure of gas during respiration, and the inspiratory phase ends when that level is reached.

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82

Negative Pressure Device

________ is rarely used in the management of patients with respiratory problems. The primary types are the tank respirator (“iron lung”) and the chest respirator (“turtle shell”).

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83

Assist Mode

The patient must develop or cause a negative pressure to “trigger” the ventilator to provide assistance to deliver gas, such as oxygen and air, to the patient.

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84

Continuous Positive Airway Mode

This mode superimposes the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (refer to the description below) on the patient’s spontaneous breathing pattern. It is particularly useful to help wean a patient from the ventilator or to help maximize the gas exchange capabilities for an immobile, inactive patient.

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85

Control Mode

The inspiration phase of respiration begins at timed intervals based on the patient’s need for gas

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86

Assisted Control Mode

This mode is a combination of the previous two modes.

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87

Intermittent mandatory ventilation mode

The patient’s ventilation cycle is established so that ventilation occurs a minimum number of times per minute. This mode is frequently used to begin to wean the patient from the ventilator and to develop an independent respiration pattern.

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88

Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Mode

This mode allows the ventilation cycle to be coordinated with the patient’s own breathing cycle

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89

PEEP mode

This mode allows oxygen to be introduced into the patient’s lungs by maintaining positive pressure at the end of expiration, which increases the alveolar surface area able to absorb the gas introduced by the ventilator and leads to maximal alveolar ventilation. The PEEP helps to expand, maintain, and keep the alveoli patent because normally they would close at the end of expiration.

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90

Supportive Devices

bandage, adhesive tape, or an external support

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91

Muslin bandage material

nonelastic unbleached cotton

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92

Woven elastic porous cotton bandage material

Ace bandage

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93

rolled gauze, a stockinette

tube formed of loosely knit cotton

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94

low-stretch bandages

Comprilan, Rosidal K, and KompriBAND

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95

Adhesive tape

used when more support or protection of a joint is needed than can be provided by any of the bandage materials. For first and second-degree sprains of the ankle. Also can be used for preventive bandage for athletes.

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96

Low-stretch bandages

Usually used for edema control

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97

Elastic bandage

can be used multiple times, can be washed. Provides limited support and protection to a joint but can be an effective method to control or reduce edema. It is available in widths of 2, 3, 4, and 6 inches

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98

Triangular bandage

a large piece of cloth cut or formed into a triangle (e.g., a square piece of cloth folded diagonally becomes a triangle). It is most often used as a temporary sling to support the weight of a patient’s upper extremity.

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99

Guidelines for Triangular Bandage

• Flex the elbow of the injured extremity to slightly more than 90 degrees with the palm facing the chest.
• Place the apex of the sling at the elbow, and bring the outer end over the forearm and shoulder of the injured upper extremity (Fig. 12-3, A).

• Bring the other end of the sling under the forearm and over the shoulder of the uninjured upper extremity (Fig. 12-3, B).

• Tie the ends in a square knot positioned to one side of the spinous processes of the patient’s neck.

• Have the patient relax the shoulder, and be certain the sling trough supports the forearm and hand.

• Pull the free apex end of the sling over the elbow, and pin or tape it to the front of the sling; the hand and forearm should be horizontal or elevated slightly above horizontal (Fig. 12-3, C).

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100

Cravat

A _____also can be used to support the upper extremity, but it will not support the patient’s upper extremity as well as a triangular sling.

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