Chemistry Exam 2

studied byStudied by 33 People
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Energy

1/42

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
42
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
42 Terms
New cards

Energy

the capacity to do work

New cards
New cards

Work

is movement against force (w= fxd)

New cards
New cards

Heat

is energy that flows from a hotter to colder object

New cards
New cards

motion at the molecular level

heat

New cards
New cards

Temperature

determines that direction of heat flow and is a measure of the average speed of that motion

New cards
New cards

activation energy

the energy that is needed to start a reaction

New cards
New cards

isomer

each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties

New cards
New cards

First law of Thermodynamics

the energy of the universe is instant, or, energy can neither be created nor destroyed; but it can be converted from one form to another

New cards
New cards

Potential energy

is energy due to position or composition

New cards
New cards

kinetic energy

energy due to movement

New cards
New cards

Second Law of thermodynamics

the entropy (chaos) of the universe is increasing

New cards
New cards

Per capita

accounting for an individual or each person

New cards
New cards

Countries ranked by co2 emissions

  1. china

  2. US

  3. India

  4. Russian Federation

  5. Japan

  6. Germany

New cards
New cards

Bond energy

the amount of energy that must be absorbed to break a chemical bond

New cards
New cards

Bond formation

release of energy via exothermic reaction

New cards
New cards

Bond breaking

energy is absorbed by bonds via endothermic reaction

New cards
<p>Exothermic reactions</p>
New cards
<p>Exothermic reactions</p>

Exothermic reactions

<p>Exothermic reactions</p>

energy is released during the course of a chemical reaction

<p>energy is released during the course of a chemical reaction</p>
New cards
New cards

Properties of an exothermic reaction

  • Heat/energy is released

  • net energy change is negative

  • reactants have more potential energy than products

New cards
<p>Endothermic reactions</p>
New cards
<p>Endothermic reactions</p>

Endothermic reactions

<p>Endothermic reactions</p>

energy is absorbed during the course of a chemical reaction

<p>energy is absorbed during the course of a chemical reaction</p>
New cards
New cards

Properties of an endothermic reaction

  • heat/ energy is absorbed

  • net energy change is positive

  • products have more potential energy than reactants

New cards
New cards

Uncatalyzed reaction

requires a higher activation energy

New cards
New cards

catalyzed reaction

requires lower activation energy

New cards
New cards

Chemical equation for the combustion of hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon + O2 = CO2 = H2O

EX: CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 +2H2O + energy

New cards
<p>Trigonal Planar</p>
New cards
<p>Trigonal Planar</p>

Trigonal Planar

<p>Trigonal Planar</p>

120

<p>120</p>
New cards
<p>Linear</p>
New cards
<p>Linear</p>

Linear

<p>Linear</p>

180

<p>180</p>
New cards
<p>Bent</p>
New cards
<p>Bent</p>

Bent

<p>Bent</p>

104.5

<p>104.5</p>
New cards
<p>Trigonal pyramidal</p>
New cards
<p>Trigonal pyramidal</p>

Trigonal pyramidal

<p>Trigonal pyramidal</p>

107

<p>107</p>
New cards
<p>Tetrahedral</p>
New cards
<p>Tetrahedral</p>

Tetrahedral

<p>Tetrahedral</p>

109.5

<p>109.5</p>
New cards
New cards

the largest percentage of energy from the sun comes to the earth is this form

Infrared radiation

New cards
New cards

Greenhouse gases

gases capable of absorbing and emitting IR radiation thereby warming the atmosphere

New cards
New cards

Example of Greenhouse gases

  • water vapor

  • methane

  • carbon dioxide

  • nitrous oxide

  • ozone

  • chlorofluorocarbons

New cards
New cards

Greenhouse effect

Atmospheric gases trap and return a major portion of this heat radiating from the earth through this natural and necessary process. Without this process the Earth would freeze over and be uninhabitable. As the number of atmospheric GHGs increases this process is accelerated causing the Earth's surface temperatures to rise.

New cards
New cards

Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases

man made activities that rely on processes that put more carbon atoms into the atmosphere rather than those that remove them; ex: cutting down rainforests, combustion

New cards
New cards

Classification of Greenhouse Gasses

  • 3 or more atoms

  • the molecular geometry

  • ability to bend and stretch with exposure to the infrared radiation ( without breaking apart )

New cards
New cards

Ionic compound

metal bonded with nonmetal

New cards
New cards

Polyatomic ions

two or more atoms covalently bonded together that have an overall positive or negative charge

New cards
New cards

Dynamic system

natural additional and removal mechanisms

New cards
New cards

What process adds carbon to the atmosphere?

Respiration

New cards
New cards

What process removes carbon from the atmosphere?

photosynthesis

New cards
New cards

Isotopes

atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons, therefore they have different atomic masses

New cards
New cards

Average atomic mass

(mass of isotope)(decimal of %) + (mass of isotope)(decimal of %) = Avg. atomic mass

answer should be very similar to atomic weight

New cards
New cards

Avg. Atomic mass example

Cl35 and Cl37

(35)(.7587) + (37) (.242) = 35.51

New cards