ETHICS FINALS

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53 Terms

1

emotion

According to Ells it is a response to stimuli based on past experiences which is made instinctively while reason is a form of personal justification that changes from person to person based on their own ethical and moral code, as well as prior experience.

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2

emotion

Some ethicists believe that ethics is also a matter of ?

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3

feelings or emotion

said to be judgments about the accomplishment of one's goals

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4

Reason

_________ when removed from emotion, allows a person to make conscious decisions based on fact, with no references to personal involvement.

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5

Ethical Subjectivism

This theory basically runs contrary to the principle that there is objectivity in morality.

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6

meta-ethically theory

Fundamentally a __________________, it is not about what things are good and what are things are bad. It does not tell how we should live or what moral norms we should practice. Instead, it is a theory about the nature or moral judgments

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7

TRUE

Ethical Subjectivism holds that there are NO objective moral properties and that ethical statements are in fact arbitrary because they do not express immutable truths.
TRUE OR FALSE

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8

Simple Subjectivism

the view (largely as described above) that ethical statements reflect sentiments, personal preferences and feelings rather than objective facts

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9

Individualist Subjectivism

the view (originally put forward by Protagoras) that there are as many distinct scales of good and evil as there are individuals in the world.

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10

egoism

maintains that every human being ought to pursue what is in his or her self-interest exclusively

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11

Moral Relativism (or Ethical Relativism)

the view that for a thing to be morally right is for it to be approved of by society, leading to the conclusion that different things are right for people in different societies and different periods in history.

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12

Ideal Observer Theory

the view that what is right is determined by the attitudes that a hypothetical ideal observer (a being who is perfectly rational, imaginative and informed) would have.

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13

emotivism

theory about moral judgments, sentences, words, and speech acts; it is sometimes also extended to cover aesthetic and other nonmoral forms of evaluation

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14

emotivism

name of only the earliest version of ethical noncognitivism (also known as expressivism and nondescriptivism)

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15

Emotivists

believe that moral language expresses emotions and tries to influence others; it has no cognitive content

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16

Subjectivism

implies the moral statements are less significant than most people think they are - this may of course be true without rendering moral statement insignificant

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17

emotivism

presupposes that moral disagreements are incapable of being resolved by rational discourse.

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18

Don't accept the problem as given

How choices are framed can sway your choices in ways that may contradict your core beliefs
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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19

Watch your language

How we name things exposes (or masks) the nature of our actions and their consequences. Firings become layoffs, layoffs become downsizing, and downsizing becomes right-sizing. The action may be unavoidable, but we should not sugarcoat the fact that people who once worked with or for us are now jobless.
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7. Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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20

Take special care in dimly lit places

Your actions—and ultimately even your values—are influenced by the company you keep.
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7. Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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21

Be modest about your virtue

Most of us believe that we are more ethical than are others. Countless experiments and real life examples, however, should remind us that people who are most self-righteous may be most likely to slip
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7. Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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22

Understand why others transgress

Some lapses may be due to moral failure, but others can be caused by external factors that have little to do with their fundamental nature. Luck plays a role in regard to how people are tested and what resources they can draw upon. Refrain from judging a person's core character, positively or negatively, on the basis of a single event.
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7. Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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23

Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

An ancient proverb says, "Every saint has a past. Every sinner has a future." Honest reflection about the past, coupled with a measure of humility, can serve as foundation for leading a responsible life going forward.
1. Don't accept the problem as given
2. Listen to both your heart and head
3. Watch your language
4. Take special care in dimly lit places
5. Be modest about your virtue
6. Understand why others transgress
7. Don't give up on yourself (or on others)

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24

STOP AND THINK

IN 7 STEP OF MORAL REASONING: Before making any decisions, it is nice to take a moment to think about the following:
a. Situation itself
b. Your role in the situation
c. Other internal/ external factors such as
• People who might get involved in the result of the decision
• Potential effects of the decision

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25

CLARIFY GOALS

IN 7 STEP OF MORAL REASONING: In a decision-making, it is essential to determine your goals both your short-term and long-term goals

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SHORT TERM GOALS

those that need to be accomplished right after or immediately after a decision is made

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27

LONG-TERM GOALS

the result may come out after some times.

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28

DETERMINE FACTS

Make sure that that all essential information is considered before you make a decision

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29

DEVELOP OPTIONS

Once you know what you the goals are and facts are well considered already, then you can make a list of actions that are possibly be your options

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30

consider consequences

After developing options which are possibly your basis of action, you must _____________________ of each option

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31

GOLDEN RULE

treat others the way you want to be treated, and keep your promises

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32

CHOOSE

After consideration of all the consequences from the options, make a decision now. If you are doubtful of your choice, try the following:
a. Talk to people whom you trust.
b. Think of someone who you think has the character of good decision maker.
c. If people around you found out your decision, would you be comfortable and proud?
d. Follow the Golder Rule: treat others the way you want to be treated, and keep your promises.

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33

Ethical decision makers

monitor the effect of their decisions and are willing to modify their decision

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MONITOR AND MODIFY

Ethical decision makers monitor the effect of their decisions and are willing to modify their decision. Though it takes a lot of humility and courage to do such, it is necessary if the decision had been made has a lot of ethical considerations. Do not hesitate to revise your decisions in light of new developments in the situation.

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35

THEORY

is a structured set of statements used to explain (or predict) a set of facts or concepts.

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36

MORAL THEORY

explains why a certain action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways

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37

Moral Subjectivism

where right or wrong are determined by what you -- the subject -- just happens to think (or 'feel') is right or wrong. This is simply based on your personal assessment and judgment.

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38

TRUE

In its common form, moral subjectivism amounts to the DENIAL of moral principles of any significant kind, and the possibility of moral criticism and argumentation.
TRUE OR FALSE

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39

you cannot object to anyone's behavior

shows the key flaw in moral subjectivism

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40

Cultural Relativism

Right and wrong is determined by the particular set of principles or rules the relevant culture just happens to hold at the time. This is also based on the idea that different people have different cultures that are why right or wrong is based on how one's culture dictates morality.

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41

TRUE

Cultural Relativism is closely linked to Moral Subjectivism. It implies that we CANNOT criticize the actions of those in cultures other than our own.
TRUE OR FALSE

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42

Cultural Relativism

it implies that a culture cannot be mistaken about what is right and wrong (which seems not to be true), and so it denies the possibility of moral advancement (which also seems not to be true)

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43

Ethical Egoism

Right and wrong is determined by what is in your self-interest. Or, it is immoral to act contrary to your self-interest.

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44

TRUE

Ethical egoism does not imply hedonism or that we ought to aim for at least some 'higher' goods (e.g., wisdom, political success), but rather that we will (ideally) act so as to MAXIMIZE OUR SELF-INTEREST
TRUE OR FALSE

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45

Divine Command Theory

Right and wrong come from the commands of God (or the gods)

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46

VIRTUE ETHICS

Right and wrong are characterized in terms of acting in accordance with the traditional virtues -- making a good person.

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47

FEMINITS ETHICS

Right and wrong are to be found in women's responses to the relationship of caring

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48

UTILITARIANISM

Right and wrong is determined by the overall goodness (utility) of the consequences of the action

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49

PLEASURE OR HAPPINESS

All action leads to some end. But there is a summum bonum -- the highest good/end

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50

'The Greatest Happiness Principle' (GHP)

usually characterized as the ideal of working towards the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
implies that we ought to act so as to maximize human welfare. We do this in a particular instance by choosing the action that maximizes pleasure/happiness and minimizes suffering

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51

Kantian Theory

Right and wrong are determined by rationality, giving universal duties.

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52

Contractarianism

The principles of right and wrong (or Justice) are those which everyone in society would agree upon in forming a social contract

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53

FEMINITS ETHICS

Right and wrong are to be found in women's responses to the relationship of caring

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