GVPT170 Final Exam

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Federalist No. 78

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Federalist No. 78

argument by Alexander Hamilton that the federal judiciary would be unlikely to infringe upon rights and liberties but would serve as a check on the other two branches

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Supreme Court

Consists of nine justices, each appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress. Appointment is for life. Supreme Court exercises the power to determine constitutionality of statutes

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Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

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Supreme Court Justices

9 justices, lifetime appointment, nominated by the president,approved by the Senate

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State Judicial Selection

varies by state, i.e. gubernatorial, partisan election, nonpartisan elections, merit/Missouri plans

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Agenda Control

SCOTUS hears 60-80 cases a year, and can dismiss a case for any or no reason at any time

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Original Jurisdiction

the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court

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Appellate Jurisdiction

The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts

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Writ of Certiorari

A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.

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Rule of Four

At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard

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General Decision Process

I. Agenda setting/screening petitionsII. Briefs and Oral ArgumentsIII. Conference Discussion of Argued CasesIV. Opinion Assignment and Crafting of OpinionsV. Opinion Announcement

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Opinion

a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind a court's decision in a case

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Majority Opinion

a statement that presents the views of the majority of supreme court justices regarding a case

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Dissenting Opinion

A statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion

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Concurrent Opinion

A statement explaining why a justice agrees with the decision of the court, but for reasons different from those stated in the majority opinion.

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Stare Decisis

Let the decision stand; decisions are based on precedents from previous cases

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Public Opinion

those opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed

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Micro Public Opinion

public opinion of the average individual

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Macro Public Opinion

public opinion of an entire electorate (behaves reasonably, cancels out individual noise and error)

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Static Public Opinion

public opinion at a fixed moment in time

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Dynamic Public Opinion

public opinion measured in movements over time

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Random Sampling

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Key Components of Random Sampling

randomness of a sample, sampling errors, the wording of questions, response rate, and intensity measurement

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Attitudes

they form survey responses; sometimes elaborate/consistent, more often loose/rudimentary

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Framing

when the way an issue is posed affects the way it is answered

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Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

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Key Considerations in Public Opinion

group attachments (race, gender, income, education), political socialization, economic conditions, religious beliefs, and PID

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PID

a person's ingrained loyalty to a political party and emotional attachments to it

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Online Processing

the ability to receive and evaluate information as events happen, allowing us to remember our evaluation even if we have forgotten the specific events that caused it

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Political Ideology

a more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursue

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Liberal

favors more active government intervention

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Conservative

favors less active government intervention

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Cross-Cutting

when an issue causes one cleavage to overlap with another over a social issue (the Civil Rights Era saw an end this when political parties aligned themselves with social beliefs)

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Thermostatic Change

the amount of liberalism in the United States fluctuates, often against the party of the president

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Symbolic Ideology

the ideological label that people use to describe themselves

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Operation Ideology

the ideological label applied to people based on their true beliefs and views

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Main Perspectives on Campaigns

press, advertising/professional strategists, and political science

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Information Flow

the goal of campaigns; citizens start to tune in and are affected by campaign information and the state of the nation

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Debates

little evidence to show they greatly affect voters' minds during a campaign, but they are an important campaign tradition

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Presidential Approval

affected by four main characteristics: crisis, economy, honeymoon, and equilibration

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Trust in Government

follows general approval rates, significantly related to Congress and the President

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The Passionate

voters who have already made up their minds about an election

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The Uninvolved

voters (or nonvoters) who are random statistical noise in elections

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The Scorekeepers

voters who shift from party to party and affect public opinion heavily (independents/moderates)

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Negative Campaigning

The act of attacking an opposing candidate's platform, past political performance, or personal characteristics.

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Electoral Mobilization

an election strategy that relies on getting a candidate's supporters to the polls

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Incumbency

what causes some candidates to have a significant advantage over their opponent before a race begins (tied to their position)

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Voting

links public opinion to government officials and government policy

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Considerations of Rational Voting

I. Probability one's vote will matter in an electionII. How much one cares about the outcome of an electionIII. The cost of voting

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Low Turnout

causes policy to respond to a wealthier, older electorate that isn't fully representative of all eligible voters

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Political Parties

widely considered a threat to good government and public order (i.e. Madison's 'factions')

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Electoral System

it is single member, winner-takes-all

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Regular Change

widespread change in the dominant party control in government over time

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Abrupt Change

party changes caused by divisive issues in society, usually within 1-2 election cycles

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Durable Changes

unseen since the Civil Rights era, historically many years between changes in party systems

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Enforcement Power

the ability to ensure laws and precedents are followed; lacking in the Judicial Branch

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Briefs

written litigant documents submitted prior to oral arguments

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Amicus Curiae

briefs submitted by/from an external party for oral arguments

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Oral Arguments

strictly-timed sections of a Supreme Court hearing, where each side is allotted thirty minutes and Justices can interrupt with questions

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Press

a perspective in elections: daily observations by the public online, in print, and on TV

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Advertising and Professional Strategists

a perspective in elections: all about the image of the candidate and the wider campaign

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Political Science

a perspective in elections: the state of the country and the economy, known as “the facts”

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Third Parties

organizations that have little national influence, but can still sway major elections (i.e. the 1912 and 2000 presidential elections)

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Short-Term Changes

public opinion changes caused by scandals, news cycles, speeches, and crises

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Long-Term Changes

public opinion changes caused by economic conditions and gradual shifts in the prevailing ideological sentiment of the mass public

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Best Methods of Random Sampling

sampling using phone surveys, random address selection, and academic polls

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Article III

within the Constitution, extremely vaguely forms the Judicial Branch

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