AP Bio - Unit 7: Evolution (mechanics of evolution)

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Law of Evolution

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11 Terms

1

Law of Evolution

The change in the genetic allele frequency of a population over time resulting in a change in phenotypic characteristics

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2

Allele Frequency

The incidence of gene varianceThe incidence of gene variance

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3

5 Mechanisms of Evolution

Natural selection, mutation, gene flow, sexual selection, and genetic drift

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4

what is natural selection

  • happens at a INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

  • the adaptive trait (trait that promotes survival) persists

  • 4 conditions for natural selection (VOIDs)

    • Varience: differences due to random fertilization, crossing over, and independent assortment

    • Overpopulation: more of one species means some will have to die and the adaptive trait will become more prominent

    • Inheritance: parents pass on genes

    • Differential Survival: the struggle for existence means advantageous characteristics survivethe struggle for existence means advantageous characteristics survive

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5

Fitness

reproductive success

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6

Selection Pressure

Force that causes a population to evolve. The stronger it is the more change there is

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7

Mutation

a random change in DNA

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8

Gene Flow

The transfer of genes between different populations e.g. migration

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9

Sexual selection

The selection of a mate based on phenotypic characteristics

e.g. peacock feathers

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10

Genetic Drift

Chance event that causes change in SMALL POPULATIONS

2 types:

  • Bottleneck effect

    • Sudden disaster that happens to pick survivors with different alleles

  • Founder effect

    • A few individuals from one population start a new population and therefore change the allele frequencyA few individuals from one population start a new population and therefore change the allele frequency

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11

Evidence of Evolution

  • fossil record analysis

  • molecular evidence

  • experiments

  • observation

  • comparative anatomy (homologous vs analogous)

  • artificial selection (breeding)

  • comparative embryology

    • biogeography

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