chem semester 1 final

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specific heat

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1

specific heat

energy required to change an object's temperature by a certain amount

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2

when heating equal amounts of oil and water, which substance will change temperature more? and why?

oil will change temperature more, the particles of the oil DO NOT resist the extra movement as much as water does

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3

which substance has the highest specific heat?

water

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4

substance A and B have equal mass. after hearing for 1 min, their temps are A = 50 C and B = 23 C. what is true?

substance a has a lower specific heat than b

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5

substance a and b have equal mass. after heating for 1 min, their temps are A = 77 C and B = 105 C. what is true?

substance A has a higher specific heat than B

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6

substance a and b have equal mass. after heating for 1 min their temps are A =77 C and B = 77 C. what is true?

they have equal specific heats

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7

substance A and B have equal specific heat. after heating for 1 min, temps are A = 33 C and B = 77 C. what is true?

substance A has more mass than B

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8

Liquids A and B have equal mass and specific heat. initial temps are A = 50 C and B = 0 C. after mixing A and B the final temp should be about ...

25 C

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9

"The water has a temperature of 32 C after the cheeto is burned."

The observation is a _____ observation about a ____ property .

quantitative, physical

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10

How many songs will you have listened to after 4 bathroom breaks? Here are a few details about the trip.

Trip length = 90 miles

Money in pocket = $12.00

Time of trip = 75 minutes

Bathroom breaks = 1 break

Fuel used = 3 gallons of gasoline

Length of Playlist = 27 songs

27 songs per 1 bathroom break

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11

1 meter = 3.3 feet How many feet are in 10.5 meters?

34.6

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12

1 meter = 3.3 feet

12 inches = 1 foot

How many inches are in 91.5 meters?

3,623.4

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13

0.18 grams of Cheeto = 1 Calorie

1 serving size of Cheeto = 227 grams

How many Calories are in 6.8 serving sizes of Cheeto?

8,575.6

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14

How many significant figures does the value 0.0101 mL have?

3

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15

How many significant figures does the value 12.010 grams have?

5

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16

Suppose you've measured one volume as 40.5 mL. You are going to measure one other volume, and then add them together. No matter what the other volume is, the sum cannot

go past the 10ths place

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17

If 262 grams of water is to be heated from 18°C to 90°C to make a cup of tea, how much heat must be added? _____ J

The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g °C

78,852

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18

When a block of aluminum loses 11,500 Joules of heat, its temperature changes from 66°C to 22°C. The specific heat of aluminum is 0.89 J / g °C.

What is the mass of the block? _________ g

294

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19

A 5 kilogram block of wood has an original temperature of 6.2°C and a specific heat capacity of 2.40 J/g∙°C. What will be the final temperature of this wood if 68,870 J of heat energy are added? ______ °C

11.9

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20

You take a 38.1 g sample of an unknown solid at 70.3°C and place it in 65.9 grams of water at 23.0°C. The equilibrium temperature of the mixture is 33.2°C. The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g∙C

From this information, what is the specific heat of the solid? ______ J/g∙C

1.99

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21

The neutrally charged parts of an atom

have a high mass and are located in the middle

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22

The positively charged parts of an atom

have a high mass and are located in the middle

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23

A particle with 9 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons would have a mass of ___ amu

16

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24

A particle with 8 protons, 5 neutrons, and 1 electrons would have a charge of ____

7

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25

Which observation provided evidence that the mass and positive charge within an atom was concentrated in a very small area?

Most (but not all) of the alpha particles went straight through the gold foil

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26

Electrons that are closer to the nucleus have _____ potential energy than electrons that are further away from the nucleus.

less

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27

When an electron in an excited state atom falls from high to low energy levels, the atom

emits radiation

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28

When an atom absorbs radiation, its electrons

jump up from low to high energy levels

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29

A greenhouse gas is a gas that ____ visible light and _____ infrared light. Examples include _____ and _____.

transmits, absorbs, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)

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30

What is a true statement about the greenhouse effect?

It existed in the past and has increased and decreased over time, but is changing faster today than it has in the past

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31

The majority of human-produced carbon dioxide is produced by

burning fossil fuels such as oil

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32

Surfaces that are darker in color tend to have _______ albedos, and therefore reflect ______ light, than surfaces that are lighter in color.

lower, less

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33

One reason that urban areas tend to get slightly hotter than rural areas is that urban areas have a _______ albedo, meaning they absorb _______ energy from sunlight.

lower, more

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34

which two subatomic particles are always packed together in the center of the atom?

protons and neutrons

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35

a positive calcium ion will _____ a neutral oxygen atom.

be attracted to

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36

electrons in a higher energy level have _____ compared to electrons in lower energy levels

a weaker force of attraction to the nucleus and a lower ionization energy

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37

what was the result if the gold foil experiment?

only a few of the alpha particles were deflected

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38

in the gold foil experiment, some alpha particles got deflected by the nucleus, which indicated the nucleus was probably

positively charged

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39

greenhouse gases absorb _____ radiation

infrared

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40

ice reflects a lot of ____

sunlight

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41

if the greenhouse effect didn't exist, earth would most likely

be too cold to live on

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42

if an area has a high albedo that means that is

reflects a lot of visible light

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43

after sitting outside on a hot afternoon, it will probably be cooler inside a white car than a red car because

the white car has a higher albedo

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44

clouds during the day make it____, clouds at night make it ____.

cooler, warmer

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45

how is polarization and ionization different from one another?

Polarization = why electrons move according to an external charged atom/object. Ionization = an electron entering/leaving the atom completely, gaining electrons give it a negative charge, while losing electrons give it a positive charge.

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46

What are the 4 most important greenhouse gasses?

CO2 , H2O , CH4 , and N2O ; Carbon Dioxide, Water, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide

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47

A positive feedback loop is when the effect ___ to the cause.

adds

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48

A negative feedback loop is when the effect ___ the cause.

reduces

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49

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom

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50

mass number

the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus

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51

proton

charge of +1, mass of 1 amu, located in nucleus

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52

electron

charge of -1, very small mass, located in orbitals

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53

2 things that make Earth warmer:

sunlight getting absorbed, IR light getting absorbed and reemitted by gases in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect)

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54

provided evidence about the mass of an electron

how much the cathode ray bent

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55

greenhouse effect

look at the picture :)

<p>look at the picture :)</p>
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56

when sunlight gets to earth:

it gets reflected (mostly by clouds) OR it gets absorbed, and that energy will later be emitted from Earth's surface in the form of IR light

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57

what is the mass of an atom if it has 20 protons, 22 electrons and 25 neutrons?

45 amu

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58

what is the charge of an atom if it has 5 protons, 4 electrons and 3 neutrons?

+1

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59

why don't all elements emit the same colors of light when they are energized

each element has different spacing between their energy levels

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60

when an electron absorbs light energy it can

jump to a higher energy level or leave the atom completely

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61

element a has a lot of blue lines in it's emission spectrum. element b only has 2 visible red lines. the energy levels ___

are probably farther apart in element a

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62

why were the gold foil nuclei able to deflect the alpha particles?

because the electric field created by the nucleus is so concentrated

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63

earth emits ____ radiation

infrared

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64

when does atmospheric CO2 concentration peak each year?

May, because it is before plants have started to grow

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65

in earth's geological past, what event triggered the start of ice ages?

earth tilting so the poles got less direct sunlight

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66

during ice ages, oceans absorbed more CO2 as water got colder. This an a ___, and it made the temperature ____.

positive feedback loop, get even colder

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67

What makes greenhouse gasses different from other gasses?

they absorb IR radiation and transmit visible light.

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68

neutron

charge of 0, mass of 1 amu, located in nucleus

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69

when sunlight gets to earth:

it gets reflected (mostly by clouds) OR it gets absorbed, and that energy will later be emitted from Earth's surface in the form of IR light

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70

when IR is emitted from Earth:

it leaves through Earth's atmosphere and goes into space OR gets absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere and is converted to heat energy

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71

2 things that make Earth cooler:

sunlight getting reflected and IR light leaving Earth

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72

albedo

a quantity that measures how much of the light that hits a surface gets reflected

<p>a quantity that measures how much of the light that hits a surface gets reflected</p>
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73

higher albedo

more light reflected, less light absorbed, stays COOLER

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74

lower albedo

less light reflected, more light absorbed, gets HOTTER

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75

positive feedback

when the effect adds to the cause

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76

negative feedback

when the effect reduces the cause

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77

positive or negative feedback?: as the planet warms, more ice melts, lowering the average albedo of Earth

positive feedback

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78

positive or negative feedback?: as the planet warms, the rate of evaporation from oceans increases, which increases the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere

positive feedback

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79

positive or negative feedback?: as more CO2 dissolves in the ocean, algae populations will increase, so more photosynthesis will occur

negative feedback

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80

positive or negative feedback?: as droughts become more frequent and intense, more forests get destroyed, so there is less wet vegetation for water to evaporate from

positive feedback

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81

greenhouse gases transmit ____

visible light

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82

the more charges there are, the _____ the attractive or repulsive force is

stronger

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83

the number of energy levels in an atom depends on what ___ it is in

row

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84

as you go down a column, atomic radius ___

increases

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85

cation

positive ion

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86

smallest common ions

Li+, Be+2, Na+, Mg+2

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87

ionization energy

the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom

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88

higher ionization energy means

that an electron in the atom is harder to remove

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89

lower ionization energy means

that an electron in the atom is easy to remove

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90

as you go down a column on the periodic table, ionization energy ________

decreases

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91

why is it impossible to measure electronegativity for most of the noble gases?

they don't form bonds

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92

more electronegative means that the atom

really wants electrons

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93

as you go down a column on the periodic table, electronegativity ________

decreases

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94

as you go across a row on the periodic table, electronegativity __________

increases

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95

the lower the element's ____, the greater its reactivity

ionization energy

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96

why bigger atoms have lower ionization energy and high reactivity

The bigger an atom is, the farther its valence electrons are from the positively charged nucleus, so the weaker the force of attraction is between its valence electrons and the nucleus, so the easier it is to remove an electron from the atom. Therefore, the bigger a metal atom is, the lower its ionization energy is, and the higher its reactivity is.

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97

for the metals, reactivity ____ as you go down a column of the periodic table

increases

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98

the greater the element's ____, the greater its reactivity

electronegativity

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99

why is the bigger a nonmetal atom is, the lower its electronegativity is, and the lower its reactivity is

the bigger an atom is, the farther its valence electrons are from the positively charged nucleus, so the weaker the force of attraction is between its valence electrons and the nucleus, so the weaker the atom pulls on an attracts other electrons

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100

for the nonmetals, reactivity ____ as you go down a column of the periodic table

decreases

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