bio unit 2 chemistry of life ch.6 vocab

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acid

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acid

substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water an acidic solution has a pH less than 7.

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activation energy

minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.

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active site

specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme.

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adhesion

the attraction between 2 dissimilar phases.

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amino acid

carbon compound joined by peptide bonds; building block of proteins.

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atom

building block of matter; contains subatomic particles-neutrons, protons, and electrons.

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base

substance that releases hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a greater pH than 7.

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buffer

mixture that can react with an acid or a base to maintain the pH within a specific range.

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carbohydrate

organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom.

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catalyst

substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy.

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chemical bond

what holds atoms together in molecules.

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chemical reaction

energy requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are changed into different substances.

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cohesion

the sticking together of particles of the same substance.

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compound

pure substance with unique properties; formed when two or more different elements combine.

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covalent bond

type of chemical bond formed when atoms share elctrons.

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dehydration reaction

a chemical reaction in which a water molecule is eliminated from the reactant molecule.

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electron

negatively charged particle that occupies the space around an atoms nucleus.

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element

pure substance composed of only one type of atom cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means

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enzyme

protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering activation energy needed to start the reaction

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hydrogen bond

weak electrostatic bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges between hydrogen atom and an oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen atom.

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ion

atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons.

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ionic bond

electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms.

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isotope

two or more atoms of the same element having different number of neutrons.

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lipid

hydrophobic biological molecule composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen that soil and waxes are lipids.

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macromolecule

large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.

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mixture

combination of two or more different substances in which each substance keeps its individual characteristics can have a uniform composition or have distinct areas of substances.

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molecule

compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds

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monomer

small molecules mostly organic that can join with other similar molecules to form very large molecules or polymers

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neutron

particle without a charge in an atom's nucleus.

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nucleic acid

complex macromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information.

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nucleotide

a subunit of a nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

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nucleus

the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA.

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peptide bond

a covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino group of another with the removal of a molecule of water.

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pH

the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

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polar molecule

molecule with oppositely charged regions.

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polymer

large molecule formed from smaller repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds linked by covalent bonds.

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product

substance formed by a chemical reaction located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.

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protein

organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds primary building block of organisms.

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proton

positively charged particle than an atom's nucleus.

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reactant

substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts located on the left side of the air when a chemical equation.

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solute

substance dissolved in a solvent.

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solution

homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (solute) is dissolved in another substance (solvent).

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solvent

substance in which another substance is dissolved.

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substrate

reactant to which an enzyme binds.

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van der waal's force

attractive forces between molecules.

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