AP Psych review (pt.2): Research, Development, Stress, and Personality

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Hindsight Bias

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Psychology

Contains chapters: 1, 5, 12 (stress section only), and 14

110 Terms

1

Hindsight Bias

the tendency to believe that you saw it coming after learning the outcome

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2

Theory

explanation using and integrated set of principles

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3

Hypothesis

a testable prediction

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4

Operational definition

a statement of the exact procedures used in a study

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5

Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study

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6

Case study

a descriptive technique where one individual or group is studied

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7

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in a natural situation

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8

survey

a descriptive way of obtaining self-reported behavior

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9

Random sample

a sample that represents the population fairly

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10

correlation coefficient

the number showing how strong or weak a relationship is

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11

illusory correlation

seeing a relationship where there is none

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12

regression towards the mean

the tendency for scores to fall toward the average

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13

experiment

research method where an investigator manipulates one or more factors

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14

experimental group

the group exposed to the treatment or one version the the independent variable

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15

control group

the group which is used to compare and evaluate; they aren’t given the treatment

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16

range

difference between the highest and lowest numbers

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17

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean

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18

dependent variable

the outcome that is measured; may change when the ind. variable is manipulated

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19

confounding variable

a factor that may influence or sway the study’s outcome

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20

independent variable

within an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied

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21

statistical significance

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22

Developmental psychology

Focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social change throughout one’s life

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23

Cognition

all mental activities

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24

maturation

biological growth process that enable changes in behavior

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25

schema

a concept of framework which organizes information

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26

habituation

decrease in responsiveness with repeated stimulation

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27

teratogens

harmful substances like chemicals

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28

Fetus

developing human from 9 weeks to birth

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29

Embryo

developing human from two weeks after fertilization

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30

Zygote

the fertilized egg; inters rapid two week cell division

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31

Sensorimotor stage

first stage in Piaget’s theory from birth to two years of age; key milestones include stranger anxiety and object permanence

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32

Object permanence

being are that things continue to exist when not perceived

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33

Preoperational stage

Piaget’s second stage from two to six; key milestones include pretend play and egocentrism

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34

Theory of mind

when one can now predict the feelings of others

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35

Concrete operational

Piaget’s third stage from seven to eleven; key milestones include conservation and mathematical transformations

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36

Formal operational

Piaget’s final stage from twelve years and on; key milestones include abstract thinking and

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37

Scaffold

Within Vygotsky’s theory, a framework that offers children support as the rise to higher levels of thinking

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38

attachment

an emotional tie with another person

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39

accommodation

adapting our current schemas to incorporate new information

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40

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of existing schemas

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41

basic trust

according to Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy

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42

Self-concept

all our thoughts and feeling about ourselves

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43

adolescence

the transition from childhood to adulthood from puberty to independence

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44

identity

our sense of self

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45

social identity

the “we” aspect of our self concept

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46

emerging adulthood

a period from around eighteen to mid-twenties where one is no longer an adolescent but has not fully reached independence

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47

Cross-sectional study

research that compares different ages at the same period of time

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48

longitudinal study

research that follows and retests the same people over time

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49

neurocognitive disorder

acquired disorders marked by cognitive defects

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50

Social clock

culturally preferred timing of social events

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51

Eustress

good stress; inludes leaving for collage, marriage, etc…

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52

Distress

bad stress; includes illness, financial problems, etc…

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53

Two types of stress

Eustress and distress

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54

sources of stress

major life changes, daily hassles, social or cultural, and conflict

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55

General Adaptation syndrome (GAS)

describes the process your body goes through when you are exposed to any kind of stress both positive and negative

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56

The cycle of GAS

Alarm > Resistance > exhaustion

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57

Tend and befriend

in times of stress women give support and bond

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58

B-lymphocites

releases antibodies that fight bacterial infections

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59

T-lymphocytes

attack cancerous cells and other foreigners

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60

Type A:

Hard-driving, competitive, impatient, super motivated, and verbally aggressive

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61

Type B:

easy going, not as time conscious, easy temper, not excessively competitive, and can calmly wait

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62

problem-focused coping

managing or changing a threat by directly dealing with the problem

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63

Emotion-focused coping

relieving or regulating the emotional impact of the problem by crying, going to therapy, etc…

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64

internal locus of control

we feel that we are in charge of ourselves and our circumstances

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65

external locus of control

we picture that a force outside of ourselves controls our fate

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66

Explanatory style

The way that you routinely explain your life circumstances to yourself whether its optimistic and pessimistic

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67

Activities that reduce stress

Aerobic exercise, relaxation, meditation, and religion/faith factor

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68

Psychodynamic

explores the unconscious

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69

humanistic

making humans better

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70

Psychoanalytic perspective

Sigmund Freud’s theory that proposes childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

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71

Psychoanalysis

Techniques used to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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72

Free association

a method of exploring the unconscious within psychoanalysis

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73

contemporary viewpoint

information processing of which we are unaware

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74

Id

strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; “I want IT now”

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75

Ego

mediates among the demands of the demands of the id, ego, and reality

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76

Superego

provides standards for judgment aka the conscience

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77

Defense mechanisms

the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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78

Repression

mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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79

Regression

when one faces with anxiety tends to retreat to a more infantile stage

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80

Reaction Formation

mechanism where ego switches unacceptable impulses into their opposite or expressing feelings opposite of how you are feeling

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81

Projection

mechanism where people disguise their own impulses by attributing them to others; justifying ones own behavior

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82

Rationalization

mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real reasons (cognitive dissonance)

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83

Displacement

mechanism that shifts impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

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84

Denial

when one is unable to face reality or admit the truth

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85

sublimation

taking unacceptable impulses and turning them into behavior that is more acceptable

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86

Projective tests

a personality test like the Rorschach or TAT that provides unclear stimuli to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics

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87

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective tests where people express their inner feeling through the stories they create about unclear photos or scenes

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88

Rorchach Inkblot test

projective test that seeks to identify peoples inner feelings base on their interpretation of ink blots

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89

Alfred Adler

studied the importance of childhood social tensions and talked about the inferiority complex

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90

Karen Horney

sought to balance Freud’s masculine bias

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91

Carl Jung

emphasized the collective unconscious

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92

Humanistic perspective

focuses on the potential for healthy growth

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93

Abraham Maslow

created the hierarchy of needs and studied those who he believed were self-actualized

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94

Carl Rogers

person-centered perspective; focused on growth and self fulfillment

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95

Gordon Allport

first to express his believe on fundamental traits or peoples characteristics

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96

personality inventory

a survey to asses feelings and behaviors

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97

MMPI

used to be set up in order to identify emotional disorders

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98

OCEAN

Acronym for the big five

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99

Ocean

Openness: imaginative, likes to explore, and independent minded

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100

oCean

Conscientiousness: being responsible, dependable, careful, hardworking, and organized

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