Human Anatomy Quiz 25: Mouth and Stomach

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mouth, oral cavity

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59 Terms

1

mouth, oral cavity

Where does the digestive system begin at? What is this also known as?

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2

cheeks, hard palate, soft palate

What is the mouth formed by?

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3

three, parotid, submandibular, sublingual

How many salivary glands are there? What are they?

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4

begin chemical digestion, lubricate food

What are the functions of the saliva? (2 things)

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5

water, mucus, enzymes that destroy bacteria, enzymes that start chemical digestion

What does saliva contain? (4 things)

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6

an enzyme that begins starch breakdown

What is salivary amylase?

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7

mouth, when it hits the acid in the stomach, fat breakdown

Where is lingual lipase released? When is it activated? What does it begin?

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8

floor of the oral cavity, receptors, taste

What does the tongue form? What does it have? What are they for?

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9

accessory digestive organ

What is the tongue considered?

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10

it is needed for digestion but food does not pass through it

Why is the tongue considered an accessory digestive organ?

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11

muscle, mucous membrane

What is the tongue composed of?

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12

outside of the tongue, but connect to it

Where do extrinsic muscles of the tongue originate?

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13

move tongue from side to side and in and out

What do extrinsic muscle of the tongue do?

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14

within tongue

Where do intrinsic muscles originate and insert?

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15

alter size and shape of tongue

What do intrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

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16

accessory digestive organs

What kind of organ are the teeth?

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17

in sockets in the gingiva which covers the mandible and maxilla

Where are the teeth located and what does it cover?

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18

chewing, mastication

What does mechanical digestion result from? What is this also known as?

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19

a soft, flexible mass, bolus, it is easily swallowed

What results from chewing? What does it also known as? What happens to this?

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20

passes from the mouth into the pharynx

Where does the bolus go?

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21

muscle, mucous membrane

What is the pharynx made of? What is it lined by?

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22

three, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

How many parts is the pharynx divided into? What are they?

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23

propel food into esophagus

What do the contractions in the pharynx do?

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24

tongue pushes food backward against palate

What happens during the voluntary stage?

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25

food goes into oropharynx, medulla oblongata is stimulated, soft palate and uvula move up to prevent food from entering nasopharynx, epiglottis closes so food does not enter trachea, esophageal sphincter relaxes, food enters esophagus

What happens during the involuntary stage? (6 things)

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26

a muscular tube

What is the esophagus, essentially?

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27

posterior

Where does the esophagus lie in relation to the trachea?

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28

mediastinum

Where does the esophagus travel through?

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29

anterior

Where does the esophagus lie in relation to the vertebral column

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30

diaphragm

What does the esophagus pierce through?

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31

superior portion of the stomach

Where does the esophagus end?

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32

a wave like motion of muscle contractions, forces food down esophagus

What is peristalsis? What does it do?

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33

food enters stomach

What happens when the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes?

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34

lower esophageal needs to relax

What needs to happen in order for food to enter the stomach?

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35

4-8 seconds

How long does it take for food to go from the mouth to the stomach?

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36

mixing, storage, chemical digestion, secretes the hormone gastrin

What are the four functions of the stomach?

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37

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus

What are the four main regions of the stomach?

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38

ridges

What are the rugae of the stomach?

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39

duodenum

What does the pyloric sphincter open up to?

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40

pyloric sphincter

What opens up to the duodenum?

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41

four

How many basic cell layers does the stomach have?

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42

secretory cells called gastric glands, line narrow channels called gastric pits

What specialization does the stomach have? What do these do?

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43

mucous neck cells, parietal cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, chief cells, D cells, G cells

What are the 6 secretory cells in the stomach?

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44

mucus, bicarbonate

What does the mucous neck cell secrete?

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45

gastric acid, hydrochloric acid

What do parietal cells secrete?

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46

histamine

What do enterochromaffin-like cells secrete?

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47

pepsin, gastric lipase

What do chief cells secrete?

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48

somatostatin

What do the D cells secrete?

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49

gastrin

What do the G cells secrete?

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50

gastric juice, 2-3 quarts

What do gastric glands secrete? How much is created per day?

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51

continue the chemical breakdown

What does gastric juice do?

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52

smaller polypeptide chains, triglycerides, fatty acids, monoglycerides

What are proteins broken up into? (4 things)

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53

chyme

What is food + gastric juices?

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54

yes

Do chemical and mechanical digestion occur at the same time?

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55

rhythmic

What kind of contractions does the stomach have?

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56

duodenum, regular intervals

What are small smounts of chyme passed into? At?

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57

2-4 hours

How long does it take for the stomach to empty?

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58

very little

Is there very little or very large absorption in the stomach?

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59

water, small ions, certain drugs, alcohol

What is typically absorbed by the stomach? (4 things)

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