Anthropology Unit Test (NOT INCLUDING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH METHODS)

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What is anthropology?

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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH METHODS ARE IN A DIFFERENT DECK

57 Terms

1

What is anthropology?

The scientific study of the origin, behaviour, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans

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2

What is physical anthropology?

  • Looks at how humans are similar and different from other species

  • Looks at the development of humans (evolution of species)

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3

What is paleoanthropology?

The study of bone and stone remains of our ancient ancestors from millions of years ago 

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4

What are the research methods of paleoanthropologists?

  • Excavation of remains and objects

  • Radiometric dating (helps determine age of object)

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5

Who is Raymond Dart?

  • An anthropology teacher in South Africa (1920s)

  • Found a skull and fossilized brain of a human child that was 3 million years old

  • The first person to provide evidence of the African origin of humanity

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6

Who are Louis and Mary Leakey?

  • Worked at a site in Tanzania, Africa searching for evidence of our earliest human ancestors

  • In 1959, they found a nearly complete fossil skull and determined it to be 1.75 million years old

  • Found further proof of an African origin

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7

What is primatology?

  • The study of anatomy, behaviours, social structures, and genetic evolution of living primates

    • Such as monkeys, gorillas apes, and mammal that have hands, hand-like feet, and forward facing eyes

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8

What are the research methods in primatology?

  • Conduct experiments

  • Immerse themselves as an observer for field work in the natural environment of primates

  • Observe in a semi-free ranging site where the habitat of primates is replicated in a more captive setting

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9

What are the similarities between humans and primates?

  • All mothers and infants have a bond that is important for survival

  • Can use and make tools

  • Communicates through facial expressions, touch, and body language

  • Rotating forearms, grasping hands and feet, forward facing eyes, and large brains

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10

What are the differences between humans and primates?

  • Only humans walk on two feet

  • Primates DO NOT have a spoken language and the physical ability to speak

  • Humans live in groups and mate in pairs

  • Humans can develop ideas and beliefs about the world

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11

Who is Jane Goodall?

  • Worked in Tanzania

  • Worked with chimps

  • Was an assistant for Louis Leakey

  • Observed chimps eating meat

  • Observed that primates used and made tools

  • Co-founded the Gombe Stream Research Center

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12

Who is Dian Fossey?

  • Worked in Rwanda

  • Worked with gorillas

  • Helped Louis Leakey study gorillas

  • Founded the Karisoke research center

  • Imitated scratches and grunts of the gorillas to study them

  • Went from research to protection against poaching

  • Set up the digit fund

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13

Who is Birute Galdikas?

  • Worked in Borneo

  • Worked with orangutans

  • Helped Louis Leakey study orangutans

  • Made over 100,000 hours of orangutan observations

  • Co-founded orangutan foundation international

  • Established the concept that non-human animals can have culture too

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14

Why are humans different from one another?

  • Humans have evolved over time in order to survive in different conditions

    • Evolution: the process of species change survival or extinction

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15

What are the three principals of natural selection?

  • Variation: a lot of variety (every species)

  • Heritability: individuals pass on traits to offspring

  • Environmental fitness: those who are better adapted to their environment will produce more offspring and pass on traits to the next generation

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16

Do human subgroups exist?

  • The concept of race (cultural concept) is “socially” constructed

    • It is defined by our society

  • The American Anthropology Association (AAA) states that race does not exist in a scientific category

  • More genetic variations exist WITHIN races than between them

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17

What is cultural anthropology?

  • Looks at how culture shapes the way people live

  • Looks at present cultures and past cultures

    • How is our behaviour shaped by the culture we live in?

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18

What is culture?

  • The total system of ideas, values, behaviours, and attitudes of a society commonly shared by most members of society

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19

What is culture made up of?

  • What people do:

    • Ex: shower regularly, bathe once a year

  • What people make:

    • Ex: cell phones, poison arrows

  • What people believe:

    • Ex: honour your ancestors, everyone is equal

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20

What is ethnology?

  • The study of the characteristics of various peoples and the differences and relationships between them

    • Researchers immerse themselves in a culture for months or years

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21

What research methods do ethnologists use to study culture?

  • Participant observation:

    • Observing and recording the behavior of the subject in their natural environment or a controlled setting

    • Living in another culture and learning a new language, adapting to new foods, new hygiene standards, different social conventions, and sometimes different climates

  • Can be highly subjective

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22

What is linguistic anthropology?

The study of the history and structure of language and the ways humans use language

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23

What is historical linguistics?

Comparing similarities and differences of language structures so we can understand how languages are related and how people migrated in the past

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24

What is structural linguistics?

  • The study of how sounds are put together to make meaning

    • 5000 + languages of the world share rules & principles

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25

What is sociolinguistics?

  • The study of how people use language within their culture to express status and content

    • Slang

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26

What is archaeology?

The study of the physical remains of a past culture through excavation and reconstruction

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27

What is prehistoric archeology?

The study of the human past before historical records began

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28

What is historic archeology?

The study of sites and artifacts that date to the period of time when written records are also available

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29

What is a school of thought?

  • A common view or approach taken by a group of like-minded people on a specific topic

    • Ex: cultural Anthropologists develop theories to make sense of evidence they have gathered

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30

What is cultural relativism?

The idea that we cannot compare two cultures because each culture has its own internal rules that must be accepted

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31

What is functional theory?

  • The theory that beliefs, actions, or relationships within society must meet the need of the individuals

    • Culture is like a system that need all of its parts in working order

  • Bronislaw Malinowski - Trobriand islanders

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32

What is cultural materialism?

  • Something that holds value to a society

  • If something is not of value to a society, it will disappear

    • Ex: Among hindus, the cow is considered a sacred animal

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33

What is feminist anthropology?

  • The study of gender issues and culturally constructed gender roles that are determined within a culture

  • Women have lost their voice because of male domination of the past

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34

What is postmodernism?

  • What we know about the world is our own construct

  • It is impossible to have any “true” knowledge about the world, as there is no objective truth

  • Anthropologists can’t study their subjects in an objective way

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35

What are rites of passage?

  • A ceremony, ritual, or event that marks an individual's passage from one stage of life to another

  • Most cultures have ceremonies to mark birth, adolescence, marriage, and death, but cultures vary enormously in how to mark these occasions

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36

Why do rites of passage exist?

  • Move from one stage to another

  • Reduce stress

  • Create emotional bonds

  • Strengthen the fabric of society

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37

What are commons rites of passages in Canada?

  • Reaching puberty

  • Getting a driver’s license

  • Graduating high school

  • Drinking alcohol

  • Moving out of parents home

  • Getting married

  • Having children

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38

What is socialization?

  • A continuing or ongoing process whereby an individual acquires or learns the norms, values, behaviours, and social skills

  • These skills and habits are considered essential for successful participation in one’s culture or society

  • We learn the language of the culture we are born into as well as the riles we are to play in life

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39

What are social norms?

The conceptions of appropriate and expected behaviour that are held by most members of a society

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40

What are foraging cultures?

  • Until 10,000 years ago

  • Men and women hunted and gathered

  • Starvation was a possibility

  • Band was small and moved regularly to follow game and plants in seasons

    • Ex: early Inuit and Aboriginal people

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41

What are horticultural cultures?

  • About 10,000 years ago

  • “Slash and burn civilization”

  • People began to cultivate plants and domestic animals

  • Used hand held tools for farming

  • Leaders of groups developed communities

    • Ex: Yanomamo of Amazon rain forest

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42

what are agricultural cultures?

  • About 8000 years ago

  • Involved working the land using new techniques

  • Improved farming techniques and modern tools

  • People stayed on their land

  • Towns and cities grew

    • Ex: 19C and early 20C Canada

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43

What are pastoral cultures?

  • About 8000 years ago

  • Domesticated herds of animals

  • Lived off livestock

  • They moved with herds in different seasons

    • Ex: The Middle East and Old West

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44

What are industrial cultures?

  • 19th century - 1800s

  • Experienced industrial revolution

  • Factories built

  • Created wealth but also inequalities

    • Ex: Great Britain

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45

What are communication-based cultures?

  • Mid 20th century - 1950s

  • “Information age”

  • First stage:

    • Mass media provided information to broaden audience

  • Second stage:

    • Development of computer technology

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46

Who is Charles Darwin?

Developed the theory that all life may have evolved from a single original source (evolution)

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47

Who is Margaret Mead?

  • One of anthropology’s most influential and controversial figures

  • Known for her study of Samoan adolescent girls in the 1920’s

  • Examined whether stresses during adolescence were caused by adolescence itself or by society

  • Observed that in contrast to American adolescent girls, adolescence was a stress-free time for Samoan girls

  • Believed that this easy transition to adulthood was due to the sexual freedom Samoan girls experienced

  • Concluded that sex roles were determined by culture, not biology

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48

Who is Derek Freeman?

  • Began working in Western Samoa in the 1960s

  • Concluded based on his own research and interviews, that Samoa actually had very restrictive sexual practices

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49

Who was right, Freeman or Meed?

  • Anthropologist Paul Shankman concluded that both anthropologists were correct

  • Mead was working in American Samoa in the 1920s at a time when premarital sex

    in the United States was uncommon

  • By the 1960s, American attitudes around premarital sex had

    changed greatly

  • The researchers were coming from different contexts and had

    different experiences in Samoa

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50

Who is Richard Lee?

  • One of Canada’s most distinguished ethnographers

  • Conducted his research among the Dobe Ju/’hoansi, a group of San people of Southern Africa for almost 40 years in the 1960s

  • Was hoping to gain some insight into human behaviour and how our hunting and gathering ancestors may have behaved

  • In that time the Dobe Ju/’hoansi have changed from a relatively isolated hunter-gatherer society, who foraged for food, to an integrated herding and farming society

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51

What is forensic anthropology?

A special sub-field of physical anthropology that involves applying skeletal analysis and techniques in archaeology to solving criminal cases

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52

What do forensic anthropologists do?

  • They help legal agencies to identify human remains after mass disasters, wars, homicides, suicides, or accidental deaths

  • Determine whether remains are human, animal, or just some wood or rock

  • Attempts to identify the deceased

  • Must travel frequently to different death sites

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53

What are the research tools of cultural anthropologists?

  • Finding informants

  • Unstructured interviews

  • Semi-structured interviews

  • Structured interviews

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54

What are informants?

  • People in the community who are willing to share information about their culture and their community

  • Should be reliable and knowledgeable about what the anthropologist is studying

  • Can be difficult to find

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55

What are unstructured interviews?

  • Between an anthropologist and an informant

  • Allow the researcher to test out his or her initial ideas and can lead to a greater understanding of the topic

  • Provide an excellent way for new directions to emerge

  • It is important that there is no deception between the interviewer and the interviewee

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56

What are semi-structured interviews?

  • Often used by anthropologists who stay in a community for only a few weeks and need to use their time efficiently

  • Allow the researcher to prepare some questions in advance and end up with reliable qualitative data

  • It is flexible

  • Can be easy to stray away from the topic

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57

What are structured interviews?

  • Uses a set list of questions that do not change

  • Should be used when the researcher is very clear on the topic and there is other information that is easily available

  • The researcher might obtain limited answers

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