Rhetorical Terms - AP Lang Review

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allegory

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89 Terms

1

allegory

A literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent abstractions

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2

Alliteration

Repetition of initial consonant sounds

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3

allusion

a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known

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4

ambiguity

The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.

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5

analogy

A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way

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6

anaphora

the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses

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7

4 sentence structures

simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

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8

antithesis

The juxtaposition of sharply contrasting ideas in balanced or parallel words, phrases, grammatical structure, or ideas.

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9

aphorism

A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle

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10

Asyndeton

omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words

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11

clause

A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.

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12

colloquial

The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing

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13

conceit

A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.

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14

concession

Something given up or yielded

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15

Connotation

a word that correlates with emotions

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16

denotation

The dictionary definition of a word

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17

Academic Tone

The language that is appropriate for the academic setting and that should be used in AP Lang at all times

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18

didactic

intended to teach

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19

dogmatism

arrogant assertion of opinions as truths

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20

euphemism

soft language used to lessen a harsher reality

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21

figure of speech

a device used to produce figurative language

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22

homily

a sermon

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23

hyperbole

an extreme exaggeration used to make a point

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24

imagery

Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste) - must be coupled with an adjective in order to use in analytical writing!

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25

invective

An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

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26

irony

A contrast between the logical/expected outcome and reality / A contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant. The intended meaning is often the opposite of what is stated, often suggesting light sarcasm.

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27

litotes

A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite

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28

metaphor

A comparison without using like or as

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29

Onomatopoeia

A word that imitates the sound it represents.

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30

oxymoron

a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to describe or modify

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31

paradox

A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.

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32

parallelism/parallel structure

similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses

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33

parody

A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.

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34

pedantic

tending to show off one's learning

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35

personification

A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.

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36

point of view

the perspective from which a story is told

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37

polysyndeton

the repetition of close conjunctions in succession

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38

process analysis

A method of paragraph or essay development by which a writer explains step by step how something is done or how to do something.

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39

prose

one of the major divisions of genre

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40

refute

to disprove; to successfully argue against

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41

repitition

Repeating a word, phrase, or idea for emphasis or rhythmic effect

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42

rhetoric

the art of using language effectively and persuasively

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43

sarcasm

the use of irony to mock or convey contempt.

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44

satire

a work that targets human vices and follies

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45

subordinate clause

Created by a subordinating conjunction, a clause that modifies an independent clause.

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46

syllogism

A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

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47

symbol

the use of a person, place, thing, event or pattern that figuratively represents something else - often an abstract concept or idea.

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48

syntax

Sentence structure - YOU MUST FIND A PATTERN IN ORDER TO USE THIS DEVICE IN ANALYTICAL WRITING!

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49

theme

Central idea of a work of literature

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50

thesis

a statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved.

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51

tone

Attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a character

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52

transition

a word or phrase that links different ideas

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53

Understatement

the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.

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54

wit

intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights

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55

zeugma

a grammatically correct construction in which a word, usually a verb or adjective, is applied to two or more nouns without being repeated.

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56

Apostrophe

an address or invocation to something inanimate

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57

The central appeals of Aristotelian argumentation

Ethos, Pathos, Logos

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58

Assonance

the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in successive words or phrases.

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59

chiasmus

a figure of speech and generally a syntactical structure where in the order of the terms in the first half of a parallel clause is reversed in the second.

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60

consonance

the repetition of two or more consonants with a change in the intervening vowels

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61

Diction

the specific word choice an author uses to persuade or to convey tone, purpose, or effect. MUST BE COUPLED WITH AN ADJECTIVE IN ORDER TO USE IN ANALYTICAL WRITING.

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62

epistrophe

in rhetoric, the repetition of a phrase at the end of successive sentences.

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63

ethos

In rhetoric, the appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker.

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64

flashback

retrospection - an earlier event is inserted into the normal chronology of the narration.

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65

deductive reasoning

moving from general premises to a specific conclusion in argumentation

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66

inductive reasoning

a line of reasoning in which general statements and conclusions are drawn from specific principles: movement from specific to general.

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67

Inference

a conclusion or proposition arrived at by considering facts, observations, or some other specific data

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68

Isocolon

parallel structure in which the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length.

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69

Jargon

specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group

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70

juxtaposition

the location of one thing adjacent to or juxtaposed with another to create an effect, reveal an attitude, or accomplish some other purpose

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71

loose sentence

a long sentence that starts with its main clause, which is followed by several dependent clauses and modifying phrases.

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72

metonymy

a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something

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73

narrative

a mode of discourse that tells a story of some sort and is based on a sequence of connected events

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74

mood

a feeling or ambience resulting from the tone of a piece as well as the writer/narrator's attitude and point of view.

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75

kairos

the rhetorical purpose established through a writer's language

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76

exigence

the reason the speech needs to be given - often tied to the historical context in which a speaker or writer delivers their message

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77

periodic sentence

a long sentence in which the main clause is not completed until the end.

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78

pathos

an appeal to emotion that stimulates pity or connection with the audience.

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79

synecdoche

a figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole

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80

simile

a direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another using connecting language (such as, like, as, etc.)

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81

style

the manner in which a writer combines and arranges words, shapes ideas, and utilizes syntax and structure.

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82

line of reasoning

the logical progression of ideas presented in an argument that establish the message as rational and valid.

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83

premise

a reason for the assertion of an argument that offers validity to the conclusion

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84

claim

In argument - a statement of assertion that contains the central conclusion drawn from evidence.

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85

synthesis

combining evidence and ideas from several sources to create an original argument

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86

verbal irony

what the speaker says is actually the opposite of what is meant (sarcasm)

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87

dramatic irony

in drama or fiction, facts or situation are known to the reader or audience but not to characters

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88

situational irony

when events end up the opposite of what is expected

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89

rhetoric

The use of language to achieve a purpose- predominantly to persuade or convince.

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