SCI MIDTERM 1ST SEM REVIEWER

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GEOSPHERE

ATMOSPHERE

HYDROSPHERE

BIOSPHERE

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235 Terms

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GEOSPHERE

ATMOSPHERE

HYDROSPHERE

BIOSPHERE

THE DIFFERENT EARTH SUBSYSTEMS

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 Geosphere

this contains all the rocks, minerals, and ground found on and in Earth.

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Crust

it is the cold, hard solid land on the surface of the Earth

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Mantle

it is the semi-solid land underneath the Earth

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Core

it is the hot, liquid land in the center of the Earth

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Crust

It is the thinnest layer of the Earth

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Continental and Oceanic crust

Crush is divided to two layers, what are these?

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continental crust

it is a thick layer of the crust that sits beneath the continents

and is mainly made up of granite rocks.

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oceanic crust

this crust extends 5 to 10 kilometers beneath the ocean floors and is mainly made up of volcanic rocks called basalt.

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Mantle

it is thickest layer of the Earth and comprises of hot, dense rocks.

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Convection Current

There is a great difference in temperature between the lower and upper mantle

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Core

it is the hottest layer located at the center of the Earth

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Outer Core and Inner Core

Core is divided to two layers, what are these?

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Outer core

a type of core that is hot that and the metals are all liquid.

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Inner Core

The pressure and temperature in the in this core are s great that the metals are squeezed together, preventing them from behaving like liquids.

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Outer core

A core that It is made up of melted metals nickel and iron.

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Inner core

A core that is a solid sphere composed mostly of iron metal

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Pangaea

continents were joined together in a huge landmass called

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Alfred Wegener

Who proposed the theory of Pangaea?

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Pangaea

it is supercontinent broke apart and gradually drifted to its present position

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Plate tectonic theory

the large-scale movement of Earth's plate is explained by what theory

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Asthenosphere

The lithosphere is divided into major plates resting upon the lower soft layer called the

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Pangaea

“All the earth”

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Panthalassa

Pangea was surrounded by a global ocean called

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Atmosphere

it is a gaseous envelope held by gravity that surrounds the Earth

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troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

5 layers of the Atmosphere

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Exosphere

A layer of atmosphere where satellites flow as do low density particles

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Thermosphere

A layer of atmosphere that puts on the auroras

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Mesosphere

A layer of atmosphere where meteors enter the earth burned up, protecting us from effects the impact

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Stratosphere

A layer of atmosphere that has the ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun’s ultraviolet ray

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Troposphere

A layer of atmosphere where most clouds are, and weather occurs

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Hydrosphere

this earth subsystem includes all the liquid, gaseous (water vapor), and solid ( water of the planet Earth )

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Water Cycle

this cycle that involves the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-atmosphere system

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Evaporation

(WATER CYCLE)

It is when the water in a liquid state is transferred to the gaseous, or vapor, state.

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Precipitation

(WATER CYCLE)

It is where liquid or solid water falls to earth

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Runoff

(WATER CYCLE)

It is where precipitation reaches the surface of the Earth but does not infiltrate the soil

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Infiltration

(WATER CYCLE)

Through this water cycle process, a portion of the precipitation that reaches the Earth’s surface seeps into the ground

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Transpiration

(WATER CYCLE)

It is the evaporation of water from the leaves of the plants

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Biosphere

it contains all the living organisms that inhabit the Earth, including plants, animals, microorganisms, and humans

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Biomes

living organisms form communities called

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Temperature

Energy

Nutrient

What are the factors that make a planet habitable?

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Temperature

( FACTORS THAT MAKE A PLANET HABITABLE )

it is the measure of hotness or coldness expressed in terms of several scales several including Fahrenheit and Celsius

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Energy

( FACTORS THAT MAKE A PLANET HABITABLE )

With this factor, cells can run the chemical reactions necessary for life.

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Nutrient

( FACTORS THAT MAKE A PLANET HABITABLE )

this factor provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.

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Minerals

are the “building blocks” of rocks Minerals

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Minerals

are naturally occurring pure substances with a definite chemical composition and an orderly repeating atomic structure that defines a crystal structure

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Silicates

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contains silicon and oxygen

  • 90% of the minerals that make up rocks belong to this group

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Carbonates

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contains carbonates ion

  • Make up common rocks

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Oxides

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contains oxygen ions

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Sulfates

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contains sulfur and oxygen

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Sulfides

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contain sulfur anion

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Halides

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Contain halogens

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Native Elements

(CHEMICAL PROPERTIES)

  • Formed as individual elements

  • These are Metals, Non-Metals, and Semi-Metals

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Color

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is a property of minerals that can be identified easily. The color of the minerals is the result of how minerals absorb light.

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Luster

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is a property of minerals that describes the quality and intensity of light being reflected by the mineral.

It determines how the mineral reflects light

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Hardness

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is a property of minerals that refers to the measure of the mineral’s resistance to scratching

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Cleavage

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is a property of minerals to break along particular directions to form smooth, flat surfaces

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Fracture

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Exhibit broken surfaces that are irregular and non-planar.

This is a property of minerals that describes the mark left when a mineral breaks or “chips”.

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Specific Gravity

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

refers to the ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water

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Magnetism

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is the tendency of a mineral to be attracted to magnets.

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Reaction to acids

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Since minerals are made up of definite chemical compositions, they react at certain conditions to other chemicals they come in contact with

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Odor

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

There are minerals that give off a certain or distinct smell. This property is not used all the time because some minerals can cause harmful effects to the body once inhaled

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Taste

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

There are minerals that exhibit certain tastes like sweet, salty, or bitter. Take note that a lot of minerals are not safe to be eaten which is why taste is often not used to identify minerals

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Color

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

The easiest property used to identify minerals

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It is because some minerals contain impurities and are affected by weathering which can affect the color of the minerals.

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Why is color the least reliable property to use in identifying minerals?

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Streak

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It is a property of minerals that describes the color of the mineral in its powdered form.

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Streak Test with the use of streak plate

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

In order to get the true color of the mineral, what test can be done?

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It works by scraping the mineral across a piece of unglazed porcelain known as a "streak plate.”

How do the Streak test work?

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Metallic or Non-Metallic Luster

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

It can be described either as what types of lusters are there?

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Metallic Luster

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Minerals that exhibit this type of luster reflect light like a resplendent shine similar to a polished metal

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Non-Metallic Luster

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Minerals that exhibit this type of luster do not reflect light very well

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Mohs Scale of Hardness

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What scale is used to measure the hardness of a mineral

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TALC

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What is the softest mineral in the Mohs Scale of Hardness?

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DIAMOND

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What is the hardest mineral in the Mohs Scale of Hardness?

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Copper Coin

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What material can be used to determine the mineral calcite and flourite?

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Fingernail

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What material can be used to determine the mineral Gypsum?

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TALC

GYPSUM

CALCITE

FLUORITE

APATITE

FELDSPAR

QUARTZ

TOPAZ

CORUNDUM

DIAMOND

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

Enumerate ( by order ) the different minerals in Mohs Scale of Hardness

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STEEL

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

What material can be used to determine the mineral Feldspar?

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Cleavage

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

The breakage occurs along zones of weakness within the crystal structure of a mineral

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Fracture

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

All minerals exhibit this property

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Specific gravity

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

this property measure to express the density of a mineral

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Magnetite

(PHYSICAL PROPERTIES)

mineral that shows attraction to magnets

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Rocks

are solid, inorganic, and naturally formed without a particular atomic structure or chemical composition.

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IGNEOUS ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

METAMORPHIC ROCKS

Different classifications of rocks

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Igneous rock

are rocks that are formed from the cooling and solidification of magma and lava

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Magma

molten rock material below the surface of the Earth

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Lava

molten rock material that makes it to the surface of the Earth through volcanoes and eruptions

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Intrusive and Extrusive

Igneous rocks are divided into two groups, depending upon where the molten rock solidifies.

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Intrusive igneous rock

an igneous rock formed when magma that is trapped deep inside the Earth cools very slowly until it solidifies.

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Because of large crystals

why are intrusive rocks described to have a “phaneritic” texture or a medium to coarse-grained texture

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diorite, granite, gabbro, pegmatite, and peridotite.

Examples of intrusive igneous rocks

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Extrusive Igneous rock

is an igneous rock formed when magma makes it to the Earth’s surface through volcanic eruptions and cools above (or very near) the Earth's surface

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These rocks are quick cooled because of the exposure to the relatively cool temperature of the atmosphere that mineral crystals don't have much time to grow, and it does not promote the formation of large crystals

why are extrusive rocks described to have a “aphanitic” texture or a very fine-grained texture

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Basalt, obsidian, pumice, andesite, and rhyolite.

Examples of extrusive igneous rocks are

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Obsidian

this extrusive rock is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form.

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Sedimentary Rocks

rocks formed by the accumulation of sediments and often have distinctive layering or bedding. These rocks are formed on or near the Earth’s surface

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CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY

CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY

ORGANIC SEDIMENTARY

Sedimentary rocks are classified into three (3) types, depending on how they are formed.

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WEATHERING

EROSION

DEPOSITION

COMPACTION / CEMENTATION

Sedimentary rocks processes

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Clastic sedimentary rocks

are rocks that are formed when sediments are lithified or formed from mechanical weathering debris. These types of rocks are made up of different minerals but the most common one is quartz

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Sandstone and Shale

Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks are

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