DNA and Protein Synthesis (full list)

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Deoxyribose

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Deoxyribose

Sugar that helps make up the backbone of DNA

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Ribose sugar

Sugar that helps make up the backbone of RNA

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Adenine

base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with thymine or uracil

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Thymine

base found in DNA only; pairs with adenine

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Cytosine

base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with guanine

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Guanine

base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with cytosine

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Uracil

base found in RNA only; pairs with adenine

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Transcription

process of making a strand of RNA from a DNA template

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Translation

process of using mRNA as a template to put together amino acids to form a protein

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Codon

group of three bases in an mRNA molecule that serves as a code for a particular amino acid

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

molecule that stores and transmits genetic information and controls the functioning of cells

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Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

molecules that relay information about protein synthesis from the DNA to the ribosomes.

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RNA Polymerase

Enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together to make mRNA

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DNA Polymerase

Enzyme that pairs up complementary DNA bases in DNA replication

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Transfer RNA (tRNA)

type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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Messenger RNA (mRNA)

type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA to the ribosome

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Anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

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Genome

all of an organism's genetic material

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Helicase

Enzyme that “unzips” the DNA molecules

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Gene

Segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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Chromosome

Rod-shaped structure that carries genetic information from one generation to the next

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Double helix

the shape of DNA that resembles a spiral staircase or a twisted ladder

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hydrogen bond

Type of bond found between the bases that connect together across the center of a DNA molecule

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base sequence

the order of bases on a chain of DNA

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amino acids

building blocks of proteins

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ribosomes

Part of the cell where proteins are made

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protein synthesis

Process of forming proteins by using information coded in DNA and carried by mRNA

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start codon

Sequence of bases in mRNA that shows where translation should begin

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stop codons

Sequence of bases in mRNA that do not code for amino acids, but signal for translation to stop

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mutation

permanent change in a cell’s DNA sequence

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point mutations

mutation that changes just one or a few nucleotides

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frameshift mutation

Point mutation that occurs when a base is inserted or deleted, which affects codon groups

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Missense mutation

Point mutation that results in a change to a codon for a different amino acid

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Nonsense mutation

point mutation that results in a stop codon occurring too early, causing a protein to be too short

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Silent mutation

point mutation that changes the codon but does not change the amino acid

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