Chapter 18: Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions

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Radioactive isotopes

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45 Terms

1

Radioactive isotopes

________ can be located by detecting the radiation they emit.

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2

unstable nucleus decays

When a(n) ________, particles and energy called nuclear radiation are emitted from it.

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3

Radiation

________ can be used to stop some types of cancerous cells from growing.

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4

Cloud Chamber

________: used to detect alpha or beta particle radiation.

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5

nuclear fusion

For ________ to occur, positively charged nuclei must get close to each other.

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6

Electrons

________ that are stripped off gas molecules in a Geiger counter move to a positively charged wire in the device.

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7

Tracer

________: When a radioisotope is used to find or keep track of molecules in an organism.

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8

Gamma rays

________ cause less damage to biological molecules as they pass through living tissue.

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9

Alpha Particle

________: made of two protons and two neutron.

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10

Radioactive dating

________ also can be used to estimate the ages of rocks.

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11

Radioactivity

________: The process of nuclear decay.

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12

Transmutation

________: the process of changing one element to another through nuclear decay.

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13

Geiger Counter

________: a device that measures the amount of radiation by producing an electric current when it detects a charged particle.

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14

nucleus

The ________ left after the isotope decays is called the daughter ________.

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15

Critical Mass

________: the amount of material required so that each fission reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction.

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16

Half Life

________: the amount of time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample of the isotope to decay.

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17

Nuclear Fission

________: The process of splitting a nucleus into several smaller nuclei.

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18

Gamma radiation

________ is an electromagnetic wave.

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19

Beta particles

________ are much faster and more penetrating than alpha particles.

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20

Large nuclei

________ tend to be unstable and can break apart or decay.

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21

ratio of neutrons

The ________ to protons is related to the stability of the nucleus.

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22

Nuclear radiation

________ moving through the air can remove electrons from some molecules in air.

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23

alpha decay

In ________, two protons and two neutrons are lost from the nucleus.

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24

Alpha particles

________ lose energy more quickly when they interact with matter than the other types of nuclear radiation do.

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25

radioactive isotopes

Traces of naturally occurring ________ are found in the food, water, and air consumed by all animals and plants.

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26

Nuclear Fusion

________: the amount of material required so that each fission reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction.

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27

Gamma Rays

________: electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies and the shortest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.

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28

alpha particles

When ________ pass through matter, they exert an electric force on the electrons in atoms in their path.

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29

Background Radiation

________ is low- level radiation emitted mainly by naturally occurring radioactive isotopes found in Earths rocks, soils, and atmosphere.

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30

radioactive isotope

The ________ carbon- 14 often is used to estimate the ages of plant and animal remains.

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31

alpha particle

A(n) ________ is the same as the nucleus of a helium atom and has a charge of +2 and an atomic mass of 4.

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32

Alpha particles

________ can be stopped by a sheet of paper.

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33

alpha particle

When an atom emits a(n) ________, it has two fewer protons, so it is a different element.

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34

Alpha particles

________ can be dangerous if they are released by radioactive atoms inside the human body.

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35

The Strong Force

causes protons and neutrons to be attracted to each other

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36

Radioactivity

The process of nuclear decay

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37

Alpha Particle

made of two protons and two neutron

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38

Transmutation

the process of changing one element to another through nuclear decay

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39

Beta Particle

electron emitted from the nucleus in a neutron decay

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40

Cloud Chamber

used to detect alpha or beta particle radiation

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41

Bubble Chamber

holds a superheated liquid, which doesnt boil because the pressure in the chamber is high

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42

Nuclear Fission

The process of splitting a nucleus into several smaller nuclei

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43

Chain Reaction

The series of repeated fission reactions caused by the release of neutrons in each reaction

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44

Critical Mass

the amount of material required so that each fission reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction

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45

Nuclear Fusion

the amount of material required so that each fission reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction

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