Nervous System Exam

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What is the CNS made up of?

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What is the CNS made up of?

the brain and spinal cord

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What is the function of the CNS?

process information from sensory and motor nerves

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What is the PNS made up of?

all of the nerves that branch off of the spinal cord

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What is the function of the PNS?

connects the brain and spinal cord to your skin and allow you to feel pain and other sensations

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What are the two parts of the PNS?

autonomic and somatic nervous systems

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What does the ANS do?

controls involuntary bodily functions and regulates glands

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What does the SNS do?

controls muscle movement and relays information from the ears, eyes, and skin to the CNS

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What are efferent nerves also called?

motor neurons

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What are afferent nerves also called?

sensory neurons

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What do efferent nerves do?

transmit impulses from the CNS out to the muscles, skin, and glands

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What do afferent nerves do?

bring sensory information from the outside world into the brain like vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, pain, and temperature

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Which part of the nervous system is involuntary?

Autonomic nervous system

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Which part of the nervous system is voluntary?

Somatic nervous system

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What does the autonomic nervous system control?

blood pressure, digestion, heart rate

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What does the somatic nervous system control?

muscle movement

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Which glial cells are in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Schwann and satellite cells

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What are astrocytes?

found between neurons and capillaries. give nutrients to neurons and control the chemical environment. make up nearly half of the neural tissue in the body.

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What are microglia?

absorb and dispose of dead cells and bacteria.

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What are the three kinds of neurons?

Sensory, motor, and interneuron

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What are interneurons/association neurons?

mostly found in the brain and spinal cord and carry sensory information and regulate motor activity by connecting spinal motor and sensory neurons (basically the communication neuron between other neurons)

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What are unipolar neurons?

have a single axon with dendrites on the peripheral end and axon terminals on the central end, rarest to find in skin in the PNS

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What are ependymal cells?

form a protective covering around the spinal cord and central cavities within the brain.

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What are oligodendrocytes?

wrap around nerve fibers and produce a fatty insulating material called myelin.

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What are Schwann cells?

maintenance and regeneration of axons of neurons in the PNS.

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What do sensory neurons do?

transmit impulses from a receptor (like the eye or ear) to the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord)

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What do motor neurons do?

allow our bodies to speak, swallow, and breathe by sending commands from the brain to the muscles that carry out those functions and they have the longest nerve fibers (spinal cord to the toes).

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What are bipolar neurons?

have one axon and one dendrite, found in the eyes and nose

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What are multipolar neurons?

have one axon and multiple dendrites, all motor neurons and interneurons are multipolar

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conductivity

the ability to transmit nerve impulses

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nerve impulse

an electric change that transmits information to and from the brain

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Polarized?

inside of the membrane is more negatively charged than the outside

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Depolarized?

electrical charge inside of the membrane becomes more positive

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Repolarization?

restoring the membrane to its original polarized resting state

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Refractory period?

the time between the completion of the action potential and repolarization when the neuron is temporarily “fatigued”

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Saltatory conduction

an action potential that rapidly skips from node to node on myelinated neurons

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Impulse conduction?

the movement of action potentials along a nerve cell

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What are the four types of reflexes?

Stretch, withdraw, crossed-extensor, and Golgi tendon reflex

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What does the stretch reflex do?

It prevents strains and tear injuries to the muscles and tendons

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What does the withdrawal reflex do?

protects humans against tissue necrosis from contact with pain or heat

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What does the crossed extensor reflex do?

It allows the body to compensate on one side for a stimulus on the other

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What does the Golgi tendon reflex do?

It acts as a protective feedback mechanism to control the tension of an active muscle by causing relaxation before the tendon tension becomes high enough to cause damage

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What divides the left and right hemispheres of the brain?

Medial longitudinal fissure

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What makes up the brainstem (in order from top to bottom)?

Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

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What are the different meninges (in order from inner to outer)?

pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

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What is Broca's area?

It is the part of the brain responsible for speech production and controlling the speech network

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What is Wernicke's area?

It is a part of the brain responsible for the comprehension of speech

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What are the different lobes of the brain?

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

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What is the frontal lobe responsible for?

Important for voluntary movement, expressive language, collecting cognitive skills, managing higher level executive functions

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What is the parietal lobe responsible for?

Sensory perception and integration, including the management of taste, hearing, sight, touch, and smell

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What is the temporal lobe responsible for?

Important for processing auditory information and with the encoding of memory

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What is the occipital lobe responsible for?

Important for visual perception, including colour, form and motion

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Can nicotine pass the blood-brain barrier?

Yes.

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Can alcohol pass the blood-brain barrier?

Yes.

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Can ibuprofen pass the blood-brain barrier?

Yes.

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Can antibiotics pass the blood-brain barrier?

Yes.

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What are the causes of Alzheimer's disease?

Age-related changes to the brain, genetics, and environmental/lifestyle factors

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What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?

Memory loss, poor judgement, repeating questions, forgetting information

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What system is affected by Alzheimer's disease?

The brain and nerve cells

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What are the causes of cerebral palsy?

Gene mutations, maternal infections, bleeding into the brain in the womb

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What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?

Delays in development milestone, stiffness, floppiness, fidgeting

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What system is affected by cerebral palsy?

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What are the causes of dementia?

Diet, exercise, excessive alcohol use, smoking

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What are the symptoms of dementia?

Memory loss, difficulty concentrating, struggling with daily tasks, mood changes

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What systems are affected by dementia?

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What are the causes of epilepsy?

Stroke, brain tumor, severe head injury, lack of oxygen at birth

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What are the symptoms of epilepsy?

Uncontrollable jerking and shaking, stiffness, loss of awareness

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What systems are affected by epilepsy?

The vagus nerve

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What are the causes of meningitis?

Bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, injuries, cancer, drugs

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What are the symptoms of meningitis?

High fever, headache, sickness, stiff neck, seizures

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What systems are affected by meningitis?

The brain and spinal cord

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What are the causes of multiple sclerosis?

Immune system attacking the brain and nerves, genetic and environmental factors

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What are the symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

Fatigue, vision issues, numbness, muscle spasms

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What systems are affected by multiple sclerosis?

The brain and spinal cord, myelin sheaths

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What are the causes of paraplegia?

Cerebral palsy, cancer, nerve conditions, stroke

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What are the symptoms of paraplegia?

Inability to feel limbs, loss of control of bladder and bowel movements, tingling in the limbs

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What systems are affected by paraplegia?

Spinal cord

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What are the causes of Parkinson's disease?

Loss of nerve cells in part of the brain

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What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?

Tremors, muscle stiffness, slowness

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What systems are affected by Parkinson's disease?

Nerve cells in the basal ganglia

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What are the causes of quadriplegia?

Damage to the base of the neck or skull, trauma, car accident, fall, multiple sclerosis

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What are the symptoms of quadriplegia?

Back pain, weakness, loss of bladder or bowel control, difficulty walking

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What systems are affected by quadriplegia?

The brain and spinal cord

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What are the causes of a traumatic brain injury?

Fall, firearm-related injury, car accident, assault

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What are the symptoms of a traumatic brain injury?

Loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting or nausea, seizures

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