Module 3

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Memory

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97 Terms
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Memory

retention of information over time

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Sensory Memory

brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory

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Short term memory

memory system that retains information for limited durations; Working Memory

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Long term memory

Relatively enduring store of information, facts, experiences and skills we've developed over a lifetime

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Decay

information fades overtime

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Interference

loss of information due to competition with new, incoming information

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Proactive intereference

happens when earlier learning gets in the way of new learning

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Retroactive interference

happens when learning new information hampers memory for earlier learning

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Rehearsal

repeating information in its original form as it was encoded to extend its duration; occurs in short term memory

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Levels of processing

depth of information, which influences how easily we remember it

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Recency Effect

Tendency to remember most recent stimuli (still in STM)

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Primacy Effect

tendency to remember earliest stimuli (now in LTM)

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Semantic memory

Knowledge of facts about the world; LTM

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Episodic memory

Recollection of events in our lives; LTM

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Explicit memory

is the process of recalling information intentionally

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Implicit memory

is recalling information that we don't remember deliberately

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Procedural memory

memory for how do to things, including motor skills and habits

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Priming

our ability to identify stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encountered similar stimuli

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Encoding

process of getting information into our memory banks

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Storage

where information in memory is kept

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Retrieval

reactivation or reconstruction of information stored in memory

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Schema

organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in memory

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Mnemonic devices

Learning technique that helps us easily remember information

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Recall

generating previously remembered information

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Recognition

selecting previously remembered information from an array of options

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Relearning

How quickly a previously learned information is reacquired

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Amnesia

Partial or total loss of memory

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Hippocampus

part of the brain that plays a role in spatial memory

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Amygdala

part of limbic system that plays key roles in fear, excitement and arousal

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Neurotransmitters

chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron

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False memory

memory that never happened

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Information Processing Model

Sensory memory -->short term memory--> long term

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Learning

A systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience

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Behaviorism

a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activities as thinking, wishing, and hoping

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Pavlov's Classical conditioning

Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response (automatic, without prior learning)

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unconditioned response

An unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned response

A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

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unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning

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conditioned response

the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus pairing

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acquisition

the initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired

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contiguity

The CS and US are presented very close together in time

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Contingency

CS must precede the US closely in time, it must also serve as a reliable indicator that the US is on it's way

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discrimination

the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others

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generalization

the tendency of new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response

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extinction

The weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent

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skinner's operant conditioning

a form of associative learning in which consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence

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reinforcement

Consequences of a behavior in which strengthens the probability that the behavior will happen again

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positive reinforcement

the presentation of a pleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior

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negative reinforcement

the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the response probability of behavior

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punishment

a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur

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positive punishment

the presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior to decrease the frequency of that behavior

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negative punishment

the removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior

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bandura's observational learning

learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior (also known as imitation or modeling)

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Ivan Pavlov

Researcher who originally described classical conditioning

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placebo effects

observable changes that cannot be explained by the effects of an actual treatment

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purposiveness

cognitive factor of learning that states that much of behavior is goal oriented

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Albert Bandura

Theorist who viewed learning as the process of observing and imitating behavior

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conditioning

process of learning the associations or connections

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intelligence

combines verbal ability problem solving skills and the ability to adapt and learn from lifes everyday experiences

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Skinner's Operant Conditioning

Defined as the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence.

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False

Encoding is a stage in memory where information is taken out of storage. T/F

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True

Sensory memory is defined as a brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory. Each sense has its own form of sensory memory. T/F

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Serial Position Effect

The fact that it is easier to recall items at the beginning and end of a list of unrelated items

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Flashbulb Memory

Memories that concern events that are highly significant and are vividly remembered

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

For which famous memory researcher is memory a problem-solving activity in which the problem is to give a coherent account of some past event, and the memory is the solution to that problem?

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Emotional

intelligence has been suggested by Daniel Goleman to be a more powerful influence on life than more traditional views

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Primary Mental Abilities

Intelligent behavior does not arise from a general factor, but rather emerges from seven independent factors that Louis Thurnstone called

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True

Crystallized intelligence is responsible for accumulated knowledge gained over time. Fluid intelligence is capacity to learn new ways of solving problems. T/F

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Multiple Intelligences

There are mixed scientific reactions to this theory/model, as it is virtually impossible to falsify. It was also not clear why only certain abilities classify as intelligences, like interpersonal, interpersonal intelligences to name a few. No good evidence that these intelligences are truly independent from one another.

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Sensory Capacity

People with better senses acquire more knowledge

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WAIS

IQ Test for Adults which also computes overall IQ

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Wisdom

Application of intelligence toward common good

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Flynn Effect

Each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the last

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Intellectual Functioning

Ability to learn, solve, decide; also known as IQ

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Emotional Intelligence

Ability to understand emotions and apply information

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Intelligence Quotient

Compares scores to what is normal in an age group. Has the formula

Mental Age/Chronological Age * 100

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True

Memory is Malleable T/F

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True

Forgetting is a natural and necessary part of life T/F

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Charles Spearman

Proposed the idea that intelligence is measured using Two-Factors, g and s abilities

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Fluid Intelligence

Capacity to learn new ways of solving problems

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Crystallized Intelligence

Accumulated knowledge of the world gained over time

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Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Intelligence is a mix of two capacities

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Abstract Thinking

Higher Mental Processes

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Analytical Intelligence

Use of logic reasoning; Book Smart

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