Module 3 and 4 Terms

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indo-european

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indo-european

a group of nomadic people who have come from dry grasslands that stretched North of the Caucasus.

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migration

movements of a people from one region to another; Indo-Europeans _____ outward in all directions between 1700 BC - 1200 BC

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Hitties

Indo-European speakers that occupied Anatolia

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Anatolia

Asia Minor; huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that juts out into the Black and Mediterranean Seas

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Asia Minor

Anatolia

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Aryans

Indo-Europeans, homeland was between the Caspian and Aral Seas, crossed over NW mountain passes into the Indus River Valley

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Vedas

sacred literature that left a picture of Aryan life; four collections of prayers, hymns, and instructions for performing rituals ---> most important was Rig Veda

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caste

social status or position conferred by a system based on class; jatis

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Brahmins

the highest ranking member on the Brahma

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Brahmins - mouth - priests and teachers Kshatriyas - arms - warriors and rulers Vaishyas - legs - traders, farmers, and herders Shudras - feet - laborers and peasants

What was the caste system and where were they on Purusha/Brahma?

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Bhagavad Gita

part of the Mahabharata; tells the story of a warrior prince named Arjuna, who is counseled by his chariot driver, Krishna, an incarnation of the Hindu deity Vishnu.

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Mahabharata

a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India; two Aryan kinds fought for control of Indian lands

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Hinduism

collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time

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Upanishads

written as a dialogue or discussion, between a student and a teacher. They describe how they can reach moksha. The teacher distinguishes between atman, the individual living soul of a living being, the Brahman, the world soul that contains and unites all atmans

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karma

the effects of a person's actions (good or bad) that determine his destiny in his next incarnation

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varna

caste systems of India

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untouchables

were not apart of caste system; not considered humans, treated with disrespect; butchers and trash collectors

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Dharma

the teachings of Buddha and the basic principles of cosmic or individual existence; an individual's duty fulfilled by observance of custom or law

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Ahimsa

a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence

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Siddhartha Gautama

Buddha; was born in a noble family that lived in Nepal

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enlightenment

if one achieves a state of __________, it is possible to escape this cycle forever

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nirvana

Buddha's word for release from selfishness and pain

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Buddha

Siddhartha Gautama; one who has achieved a state of perfect enlightenment by meditating under a fig tree for 49 days

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First - life is filled with suffering and sorrow

Second - the cause of all suffering is people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world

Third - the way to end all suffering is to end all desires

Fourth - the way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self denail

the four noble truths are:

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The Middle Way

the Eightfold path; between desires and self denial

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three jewels

the Buddha (the exemplar), the dharma (the teachings), and the sangha (the community of practitioners)

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stupas

dirt burial mound faced with stone

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Theravada

school of Buddhism believes that it has remained closest to the original teachings of the Buddha

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Mahayana

the right path of a follower will lead to the redemption of all human beings

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Zen Buddhism

______ meditation is mainly about following the breath as well as emptying the mind

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Tibetan Buddhism

_________ meditation often includes things like mantras and visualizations and concentrating on really complex thoughts

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Minoans

powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean; lived on Crete and near the Aegean Sea, produced the finest pottery

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Aegean Sea

on the southern edge of the island Crete

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Knossos

Minoan capital city

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Phoenicians

most powerful traders along the Mediterranean; remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers, first Med people to go beyond the Strait of Gibraltar

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Carthage

greatest Phoenician colony was at _____

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shekel

unit of money in Israel

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phonetic alphabet

way to record transactions clearly and quickly, symbols represent sounds, introduced the ______ to many trading partners such as Greece

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Canaan

an ancient region between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean, corresponding roughly to Israel; promised by God and led there by Abraham

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Torah

Hebrew Bible; the whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tradition

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Abraham

a shepherd who lived in the city of Ur; chosen by God to be the "father" of Jewish people, God promised this man protection over himself and his Jewish descendants (covenant)

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covenant

God promised Abraham protection towards himself and his Jewish descendants

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ten commandments

code of laws delivered by Moses included rules by regulating social and religious behavior; to Jews, it meant paying restitution and emphasizing gods mercy

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Israel

New Kingdom; Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine

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Judah

The kingdom was divided into two, Israel and ____. When Israel was destroyed this kingdom, _____, remained. How Israelites got their name, Jews, and their religion, Judaism.

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Talmud

the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism

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Saul

the first king of the Israelites who drove out the Philistines from Central hills, portrayed as a tragic man who was given bout to jealousy

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David

the second king of the Israelites. An extremely popular leader who united the tribes, established Jerusalem, and founded a dynasty

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Solomon

The third king of the Israelites; the most powerful, built a trading empire with the help of his friend Hiram. He also beautified the capital city of Jerusalem. Built a great temple to glorify God

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Tyre

an alliance of ten nations that would conspire against God's people

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Babylonian Captivity

the forced detention of Jews in Babylonia following the latter's conquest of the kingdom of Judah

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King Nebuchadnezzar

a great Babylonian king who ran the Egyptians out of Syria and Judah attacked Jerusalem twice

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monotheism

belief in a single God

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Hyksos

Asiatic invaders that ruled Egypt

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New Kingdom

The strength of Egypt to become an empire; third period of glory

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enslavement of the Israelites

they had become so numerous, the Pharaoh feared their presence. He feared that one day the Israelites would turn against the Egyptians and so he enslaved them

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Hatshepsut

the female pharaoh who focused on trade instead of waging war

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Nubia

an ancient region of northeastern Africa on the Nile

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Hittites

Anatolian people; manufactured advanced iron goods, ruled over their kingdom through government officials with independent authority over various branches of government, and worshipped storm gods. The ________' ongoing conflicts with Egypt produced the world's first known peace treaty

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Ramses II

pharaoh king who made a treaty promising "peace and brotherhood between us forever"

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Valley of the Kings

Thebes; land that promised security in the afterlife and protection from gave robbers

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Thebes

an ancient Egyptian city on the Nile River that flourished from the 22nd century BC to the 18th century BC

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Karnak

religious significance, it was also served as a treasury, administrative center, and palace for the New Kingdom pharaohs

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Kush

Nubia kingdom

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Assyrians

brutal and violent empire; very strong and grew very big in their time of reign

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Meroe

Kushite royal family moved her; lays close to the Red Sea, active in flourishing with Africa, Arabia, and India

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Assyria

an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia

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Sennacherib

king of Assyria who invaded Judea twice and defeated Babylon and rebuilt Nineveh after it had been destroyed by Babylonians

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Nineveh

an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris across from the modern city of Mosul

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Chaldeans

burned down and leveled Nineveh with the help of the Medes

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King Nebuchadnezzar

Chaldean king; restored Babylon

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Babylon

the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia

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