Dev Psych Exam #2

studied byStudied by 127 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Cephalocaudal Principle

1 / 312

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
313
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
313 Terms
1
New cards

Cephalocaudal Principle

the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body

New cards
2
New cards

Proximodistal Principle

states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward

New cards
3
New cards

Principle of Hierarchical Integration

the principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills

New cards
4
New cards

Principle of the Independence of Systems

suggests that different body systems grow at different rates

New cards
5
New cards

Neurons can communicate with other cells, using a cluster of fibers called _______ and carries out messages through the _______ with neurons called ________________

dendrites, axon, neurotransmitters

New cards
6
New cards

Neurons

the basic nerve cell of the nervous system

New cards
7
New cards

Cerebral Cortex-

the upper layer of the brain; these cells are responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning

New cards
8
New cards

Over time, the cells in the ______________ become more developed and interconnected

cerebral cortex

New cards
9
New cards

Shaken Baby Syndrome

an infant is shaken by a caretaker, leading the brain to rotate within the skill, causing blood vessels to tear and destroying intricate connections between neurons

New cards
10
New cards

Shaken Baby Syndrome can lead to:

-severe medical problems -long-term physical disabilities such as blindness, hearing impairment and speech disabilities -in the worse cases death

New cards
11
New cards

Plasticity

the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience

New cards
12
New cards

Sensitive Period

a specific, but limited, time usually early in an organism's life, during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development

New cards
13
New cards

Rhythms

repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior

New cards
14
New cards

State

the degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation

New cards
15
New cards

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults which is associated with dreaming

New cards
16
New cards

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby

New cards
17
New cards

There is no known reason or cure for SIDS, but it is suggested to:

have the baby lie on their back with a pacifier during sleep

New cards
18
New cards

Reflexes

<p>unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli</p>

unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli

<p>unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli</p>
New cards
19
New cards

rooting reflex

reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth or cheek; disappears after 3 weeks

New cards
20
New cards

stepping reflex

movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor; disappears after 2 months

New cards
21
New cards

swimming reflex

infant's tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water; disappears after 4-6 months

New cards
22
New cards

moro reflex

activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed. The arms of the infant are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something; disappears after 6 months

New cards
23
New cards

babinski reflex

an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot; disappears after 8-12 months

New cards
24
New cards

startle reflex

an infant flings out its arms arches its back and spreads its fingers in response to a sudden noise; reflex remains in different form throughout lifespan

New cards
25
New cards

eye-blink reflex

rapid shutting and opening of the eye on exposure to direct light; never disappears

New cards
26
New cards

sucking reflex

infant's tendency to suck at things that touch its lips; never disappears

New cards
27
New cards

gag reflex

an infant's reflex to clear its throat; never disappears

New cards
28
New cards

Dynamic Systems Theory

a theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated

New cards
29
New cards

Norms

the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age

New cards
30
New cards

It isn't always reliable to base a child's health on norms, because it lacks representation of the ____________________ between each child, and most research is done only on middle/upper-class Caucasian babies.

individual differences

New cards
31
New cards

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

a measure used to determine infants' neurological and behavioral responses to their environment

New cards
32
New cards

Nutrition of infants

-Studies have found breast milk to be more advantageous than formula -Babies are suggested to start taking 1-2 tablespoons of solids around 6 months and 2-3 snacks per day after 9 months -Children are more at risk of malnourishment in developing countries -There is no clear evidence if overfeeding actually causes for adult/child obesity or not, but regardless it is good to not overfeed an infant

New cards
33
New cards

Nonorganic Failure to Thrive

a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting

New cards
34
New cards

Sensation

the physical stimulation of the sense organs

New cards
35
New cards

Visual Perception of infants

<p>-Infants are able to see about 20 feet in front of them with visual accuracy -Babies also quickly develop depth perception, which has been tested through the use of &quot;visual cliffs&quot; -They also prefer to look at more complex patterns, as well as learn how to distinguish faces</p>

-Infants are able to see about 20 feet in front of them with visual accuracy -Babies also quickly develop depth perception, which has been tested through the use of "visual cliffs" -They also prefer to look at more complex patterns, as well as learn how to distinguish faces

<p>-Infants are able to see about 20 feet in front of them with visual accuracy -Babies also quickly develop depth perception, which has been tested through the use of &quot;visual cliffs&quot; -They also prefer to look at more complex patterns, as well as learn how to distinguish faces</p>
New cards
36
New cards

Auditory Perception of infants

-infants are able to hear before the time of birth, and even in the womb the fetus responds to sounds outside of its mother -Infants are born with preferences for particular sound combinations -Infants are born with reasonably good auditory perception, and are more sensitive to high and low frequencies than adults, while less sensitive to middle-range frequencies -Sound localization is pretty good and improves within the first two years of life -Babies are able to distinguish the sounds of different languages, and similar sounds

New cards
37
New cards

Infants senses of smell, taste and feel:

-infant's sense of smell is so well developed that some newborns (12-18 days) can distinguish their mother on the basis of smell alone -Babies are born with an innate sweet tooth, with a distaste for bitter things -Infants are born with the capacity to experience pain, and pain produces distress in infants -Touch is one of the most highly developed sensory systems in a newborn, and is one of the first to develop -There is evidence that by 32 weeks after conception the entire body is sensitive to touch -Many reflexes are revolved around an infant's touch perception

New cards
38
New cards

Multimodal Approach to Perception

the approach that considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated

New cards
39
New cards

Affordances

the action possibilities that a given situation or stimulus provides

New cards
40
New cards

Gross motor skills

• Grasp reflex---->ulnar grasp------->neat pincer grasp • Catching/throwing • Head control (at 6 weeks) • Rolling • Sitting • Crawling • Creeping • hitching • Standing • Walking • Running • Climbing -Jumping

New cards
41
New cards

Visual Cliff Experiment

<p>children will not cross a visual cliff, showing depth perception in young infants and toddlers</p>

children will not cross a visual cliff, showing depth perception in young infants and toddlers

<p>children will not cross a visual cliff, showing depth perception in young infants and toddlers</p>
New cards
42
New cards

Myelin

<p>the fatty substance that coats the neurons, and is responsible for the increased efficiency in communication for neurons across the brain</p>

the fatty substance that coats the neurons, and is responsible for the increased efficiency in communication for neurons across the brain

<p>the fatty substance that coats the neurons, and is responsible for the increased efficiency in communication for neurons across the brain</p>
New cards
43
New cards

Synapses

the spaces between neurons where information is processed

New cards
44
New cards

Infants are more likely to recover from _________ during the first two years of life

brain damage

New cards
45
New cards

Jean Piaget

a Swiss psychologist that suggested that knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior, and created many essential theories on cognitive development

New cards
46
New cards

Schemes

organized mental structures and patterns

New cards
47
New cards

Assimilation

the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive thinking

New cards
48
New cards

Accommodation

changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events

New cards
49
New cards

Sensorimotor Stage

piaget's initial major stage of cognitive development, which can be broken down into six substages

New cards
50
New cards

The 6 substages of the sensorimotor stage are:

<p>Simple reflexes, First habits and primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, Coordination of secondary circular reactions, Tertiary Circular Reactions, and Beginnings of thought</p>

Simple reflexes, First habits and primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, Coordination of secondary circular reactions, Tertiary Circular Reactions, and Beginnings of thought

<p>Simple reflexes, First habits and primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, Coordination of secondary circular reactions, Tertiary Circular Reactions, and Beginnings of thought</p>
New cards
51
New cards

Substage 1: Simple reflexes

The various inborn reflexes are at the center of a baby's physical and cognitive life, and some reflexes begin to accommodate the infant's experience with the nature of the world; encompasses the first month of life

New cards
52
New cards

Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions

Occurs from 1 to 4 months; infants begin to coordinate separate actions into integrated activities

New cards
53
New cards

Substage 3: secondary circular reactions

Occurs from 4 to 8 months; infants begin to act upon the outside world, seeking to repeat enjoyable events in their environments

New cards
54
New cards

Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Occurs from 8 to 12 months; infants begin goal-oriented behaviors and gain object permanence

New cards
55
New cards

Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions

Occurs from 12 to 18 months; develops schemes regarding the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences

New cards
56
New cards

Substage 6: Beginnings of thought

From 18 months to 2 years; develops the capacity for mental representation, or symbolic thought, and deferred imitation

New cards
57
New cards

Goal-Oriented Behavior

behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem

New cards
58
New cards

Object Permanence

the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen

New cards
59
New cards

Mental Representation

an internal image of a past event or object

New cards
60
New cards

Deferred Imitation

an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act

New cards
61
New cards

Doubts/skepticism on Piaget's Theory:

-Development proceeds in more continuous fashion -Robert Seigler suggests that development happens in waves rather than stages -The connection made between cognitive and motor development is exaggerated -Baillargeon conducted studies that demonstrate earlier capabilities of infants in understanding object permanence -Other behaviors also seen to emerge earlier than piaget suggested -Describes western countries better than children from non-western countries

New cards
62
New cards

Information-Processing Approaches

the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use and store information

New cards
63
New cards

Encoding

the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory

New cards
64
New cards

Storage

the placement of material into memory

New cards
65
New cards

Retrieval

the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

New cards
66
New cards

Automatization

the degree to which an activity requires attention

New cards
67
New cards

_________ can be thought of as a computer’s keyboard, through which one inputs information; _______ is the computer’s hard drive, where information is stored; and ________is analogous to soft- ware that accesses the information for display on the screen.

<p>encoding, storage, retreival</p>

encoding, storage, retreival

<p>encoding, storage, retreival</p>
New cards
68
New cards

Motor development of infants:

knowt flashcard image
knowt flashcard image
New cards
69
New cards

Memory

<p>the process by which information is initially recorded, stored and retrieved</p>

the process by which information is initially recorded, stored and retrieved

<p>the process by which information is initially recorded, stored and retrieved</p>
New cards
70
New cards

Infantile Amnesia

the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age

New cards
71
New cards

Explicit Memory

the memory that is conscious and which can be recalled intentionally

New cards
72
New cards

Implicit Memory

consists of memories of which we are not consciously aware but that affect performance and behavior

New cards
73
New cards

Developmental Quotient

an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal-social

New cards
74
New cards

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

a measure that evaluates an infant's development from 2 to 42 months

New cards
75
New cards

the relatively recent finding that an association exists between efficiency of information processing and later IQ scores does suggest some consistency of ___________________ across the life span.

cognitive development

New cards
76
New cards

Language

the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, which provides the basis for communication

New cards
77
New cards

Phonology

the basic sounds or a language that can be used to produce words and sentences

New cards
78
New cards

Morphemes

the smallest language unit that has meaning

New cards
79
New cards

Semantics

the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences

New cards
80
New cards

Babbling

making speech-like but meaningless sounds

New cards
81
New cards

Holophrases

one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used

New cards
82
New cards

Telegraphic speech

speech in which words not critical to the message are left out

New cards
83
New cards

Underextension

the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language

New cards
84
New cards

Overextension

the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 107 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(6)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 218 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard168 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)