Euro History Notebook 5-7 study guide

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Protestant Reformation

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1

Protestant Reformation

Religious reform movement that swept through Europe in 1500’s. It created a new religion called Protestantism which focused on personal connection to god and practicing scripture.

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2

Martin Luther

Monk who began to read classical texts like St. Augustine and Bible. Figured out that church was doing opposite of Bible and told people to start practicing scripture and create closer connection to god.

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3

95 Theses

Written by a man in which he described all of the problems with the church .

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4

Printing Press

Helped people to spread their message and ideas into society

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5

John Wycliffe and Jan Hus

People who lived in Bohemia who failed to spread their ideas with public

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6

John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli

The founders of Calvinism

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7

predestination

Previous determination as if by destiny or fate. One is predestined to go to heaven and hell and can do nothing to change their fate.

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8

Communion for Calvanists vs Lutherans

One group believed the bread and wine represented Jesus's body, while the other group believed it was the actual blood and body of Jesus.

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9

Anabaptist

Group often described as radical and ones to violently defend their ideas.

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10

German Peasant Revolts 1524-1526

As more people began reading Bible they realized it was filled with teachings of rulers being kind, helping the needy, and being benevolent. People realized they were being overworked and overtaexed, They rose up against their lords and ended up killing thousands of people.

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11

Cause of Revolt

Not religious ideas, but based on one persons ideas about Christianity and interpretations of Bible were direct cause.

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12

How Anabaptists were treated

They were deemed radical and were killed, tortured, and imprisoned and were chased out of town

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13

Where Lutheranism was practiced

This was mainly in German, Scandinavian areas, and Netherlands

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14

Where Calvanism was practiced

Mainly in France, Switzerland, and Scotland

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15

Impact of Reformation

Led to devastation of the financial and political power of Church. Princes took Church land and avoided Church taxes. Almost half of all Catholics turned to some form of Protestantism.

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16

Impact of Religious Wars

Which led to deterioration of the economy and population of Europe as well as let Scientific Revolution bloom and freed people from restrictions of Catholic Church

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17

council of trent

a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers

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18

Scriptural authority

Church made it clear that this was not a way of ruling and all decisions were still to be made by the Church.

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19

St. Teresa of Avila

A nun who wrote highly about Catholicism

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20

Ignatius Loyola

Spanish Priest who wrote highly about Catholicism

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21

What St.Teresa of Avila wrote about

dedicating your body and soul to Catholic faith and promoted connection to God.

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22

Spiritual Exercises

wrote a step by step plan on how to be closer to god by maintaining Catholic traditions and rituals

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23

Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

a Roman Catholic order founded by Catholic Church in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen

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24

Index of Prohibited Books

banning anything deemed heretical. Was a whole book on what can't be read by Catholics and was banned by Church.

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25

Inquisition

a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church created to discover and suppress heresy. Also traveled around world to seek out 'heretics'. Used brutal methods of murdering, killing thousands of Europeans in Spain, Italy, France, and Netherlands.

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26

Wars of Reformation

Wars of religion and main goal was to defeat Protestant Princes and return them to Catholicism. Started when Church banned Protestantism.

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27

Charles V

King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire.

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28

Schmalkaldic League

alliance formed by Protestant princes and resisted King Charles V for over a decade

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29

Peace of Augsburg 1555

Realizing he could not re-unify Europe, Charles V agreed to settle for harmony at

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30

Importance of Peace Settlement

allowed princes to choose their own religion

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31

Dutch Revolts 1568-1648

Charles Unable to defeat Protestants in German, he was able to fight them vigorously in Netherlands through Spain in 1500's. Dutch were Calvinists and in 1568 began a war that would last 80 years.

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32

Phillip II

only one to outlaw Protestantism and send Inquisition to Netherlands.

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33

Victory of Dutch Protestants

This group won the war as the other party ran out of money and left

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34

French Wars of Religion

Period of war between French Catholics and Protestants. As king was Catholic, it was hard for Huguenots to live. As a result, Huguenot Princes fought and resisted king.

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35

Huguenots

What French Calvinists were called and they were usually spread out

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36

Henry of Navarre

A Protestant that became King of Navarre from 1572. Henry married Margaret Medici who was a Catholic and to support Henry all Protestant princes joined his wedding.

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37

Catherine Medici

Mother in law of Henry of Navarre who arranged to get all Huguenot Princes killed.

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38

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

The day where thousand of Huguenots were murdered including princes,

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39

Impact of Massacre

Led to reduction of religious wars in France

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40

Edict of Nantes

Made all Huguenots legal and safe in Kingdom of France

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41

3 religious wars 1520's to 1648

French wars of Religion, Dutch Revolt, and Thirty year war

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42

Church's solution to Reformation

consider views of Protestants and contemplate reforms

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43

What Church decided in Council of Trent

denied all Protestant Claims and maintained same system

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44

what Catholics did to followers

rather than teaching new things, the Church reinvigorated the people that remained faithful to Catholicism.

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45

what Church encouraged

informed priests, monks, and bishops to look to older Christian texts for inspiration

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46

Contribution of Luther's ideas

It also contributed to the development of common vernacular language and grammar which, eventually, helped develop national identities in the Modern Era

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47

Luther's conflict

Not all people agreed with Luther's ideas only those who read Bible

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48

What Christians believed

should be harmonious Christian society whose rulers are helpful and provide aid

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49

England

This country helped Protestants during French wars of Religion

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50

Spain

Helped Catholics during French Wars of Religion

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51

Bible justified to Luther

none of the rituals, traditions, deeds, or powers of the pope/Church,

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