AP Psych: consciousness and the two-track mind

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1

consciousness

our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment. (hard to define because without it, we are nothing)

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2

Based on evolutionary psychologists why do we have a consciousness?

Consciousness offers a reproductive advantage. Consciousness helps us cope with novel situations and act in our long-term interests, rather than merely seeking short-term pleasure and avoiding pain. Consciousness also promotes our survival by anticipating how we seem to others and helping us read their minds: "He looks really angry! I'd better run!"

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3

what are some conscious states that occur spontaneously?

Daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming

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4

what are some physiologically induced consciousness?

hallucination, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation.

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5

what are some psychologically induced consciousness?

sensory deprivation, hypnosis, medication

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6

cognitive neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition( including perception, thinking, memory, and language). relating specific brain states to conscious experiences.

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7

what happens when you tell a noncommunicative patient (for example, a 23 year old woman who had been in a car accident and showed no signs of conscious awareness) to imagine playing tennis?

FMRI scans would reveal activity in a brain area that normally control arm and leg movements. Even in a motionless body, researchers concluded the brain in the mind may still be active.

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8

what do conscious experience arise from?

conscious experience arises from synchronize activate across the brain. If a stimulus activates enough brain wide coordinated neural activity- as strong signals in one brain area trigger activity elsewhere- it crosses a threshold for consciousness.

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9

selective attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. (our awareness focuses, like a flashlight beam, on a minute aspect of all that we experience)

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10

cocktail party effect

your ability to attend to one voice among a sea of others.

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11

what are the two principles of the cocktail party effect?

  1. We are good at filtering out noise, and paying attention to who we’re listening to.

  2. Our own name and provocative words can pull our attention away (such as danger and controversy)

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12

intentional blindness

failing to see visible options when our intention is directed elsewhere (regarding the photo, view, where is who were attending to basketball tosses among the black, shredded players, usually failed to notice the umbrella-toting women sauntering across the screen)

<p>failing to see visible options when our intention is directed elsewhere (regarding the photo, view, where is who were attending to basketball tosses among the black, shredded players, usually failed to notice the umbrella-toting women sauntering across the screen)</p>
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13

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment; a form of an intentional blindness (in laboratory experiments, viewers failed to notice that after a brief visual interruption, a big Coke bottle had disappeared, railing had risen, clothing change colors- and construction workers had changed places)

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14

Explain three attentional principles that magicians may use to fool us.

Our selective attention allows us to focus on only a limited portion of our surroundings. Inattentional blindness explains why we don't perceive some things when we are distracted. And change blindness happens when we fail to notice a relatively unimportant change in our environment. All three principles help magicians fool us, as they direct our attention elsewhere to perform their tricks.

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15

dual processing

The principle of that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Perception, memory, thinking language, and attitudes all operate on two levels- a conscious deliberate “high road” and an unconscious, automatic “low road”. The high road is reflective, the low road intuitive.

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16

blindsight

A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it. (a blind sight patient can walk through a cluttered hallway and avoid any obstacles.) This is evidence of the two-track mind

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17

parallel processing

processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; generally used to process well-learned information or to solve easy problems

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18

sequential processing

processing one aspect of a problem at a time; generally used to process new information or to solve difficult problems. (unconscious parallel processing is faster than conscious sequential processing, but both are essential.)

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19

Failure to see visible objects because our attention is occupied elsewhere is called _______ _________

inattentional blindness

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20

We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of ________ processing. When we devote deliberate attention to stimuli, we use ________ processing.

unconscious;conscious

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21

Inattentional blindness is a product of our ______ attention.

selective

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22

What are the mind's two tracks, and what is dual processing?

Our mind simultaneously processes information on a conscious track and an unconscious track (dual processing) as we organize and interpret information.

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23

sleep

A periodic natural loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness, resulting from a coma, general anesthesia or hibernation.

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24

are the following statements true or false?

  1. When people dream of performing some activity, their limbs often move in concert with the dream.

  2. Older adults sleep more than young adults.

  3. Sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams.

  4. Sleep experts recommend treating insomnia with an occasional sleeping pill.

  5. Some people dream every night; others seldom dream.

false

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25

circadian rhythm

our biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24 hour cycle

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26

what can alter our circadian rhythm?

age and experience

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27

The human sleep cycle repeats itself every:

90 minutes

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28

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep; a reoccurring sleep stage, during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

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29

why do we yawn?

We yawn in response to reduced brain metabolism, yawning is socially contagious, and it stretches your neck muscles and increases your heart rate which increases your alertness.

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30

alpha waves

The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

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31

NREM-1 (stage 1)

NREM-1 sleep is the first sleep stage you enter when nodding off. This sleep stage is when heartbeat, eye movements, brain waves, and breathing activity begin to taper down. (lasts 10 minutes and you may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations)

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32

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

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33

NREM-2 (stage 2)

After stage 1, you then relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of NREM-2 sleep, with its periodic sleep spindles- bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity. Although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty, you are now clearly asleep.

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34

NREM-3 (stage 3 and 4)

Transition to deep sleep, during the slow wave sleep, which lasts about 30 minutes, your brain emits large, slow delta waves, and you are hard to waken

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35

Delta waves

The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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36

What brain waves accompany NREM-1?

alpha waves

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37

What brain waves accompany NREM-2?

theta waves

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38

what brain waves accompany sleep stage 3 and 4?

delta waves

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39

what happens after an hour after you first fall asleep.

rather than continuing in deep slumber, you ascend from your initial sleep dive, returning through NREM-2 (where are you ultimately spend about half your night), you enter the most intriguing of the four sleep phases, REM sleep.

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40

how do we tell that we are having dreams while sleeping?

your heart rate rises your breathing becomes rapid and irregular and every half minute or so your closed eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity.

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41

what happened to your genitals during REM sleep?

Except during very scary dreams, your genitals become aroused during REM sleep. You have an erection or increased vaginal lubrication and clitoral engorgement, regardless of whether the dream's content is sexual. Men's common "morning erection" stems from the night's last REM period, often just before waking. In young men, sleep-related erections outlast REM periods, lasting 30 to 45 minutes on average

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42

why don’t you move during REM sleep?

During REM sleep, your brain's motor cortex is active, but your brainstem blocks its messages. This leaves your muscles relaxed, so much so that, except for an occasional finger, toe, or facial twitch, you are essentially paralyzed. Moreover, you cannot easily be awakened. (This immobility may occasionally linger as you awaken from REM sleep, producing a disturbing experience of sleep paralysis

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43

when do we have the most vivid dreams?

REM sleep

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44

Why would communal sleeping provide added protection for those whose safety depends upon vigilance, such as soldiers?

With each soldier cycling through the sleep stages independently, it is very likely that at any given time at least one will be in an easily awakened stage in the event of a threat.

<p>With each soldier cycling through the sleep stages independently, it is very likely that at any given time at least one will be in an easily awakened stage in the event of a threat.</p>
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45

What are the four sleep stages, and in what order do we normally travel through those stages?

REM, NREM-1, NREM-2, NREM-3; normally we move through NREM-1, then NREM-2, then NREM-3, then back up through NREM-2 before we experience REM sleep.

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46

Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “story-like dream”

REM

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47

Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “fleeting images”

NREM-1

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48

Can you match the cognitive experience with the sleep stage: “minimal awareness”

NREM-3

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49

sleep patterns are _____ and ______ influenced

genetically; culturally

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50

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness.

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51

What disrupts our 24-hour biological clock?

Being bathed in (or deprived of) light disrupts our 24-hour biological clock. Night-shift workers may experience a chronic state of desynchronization.

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52

why does our phones help us not sleep?

phones emit artificial light that disrupts our melatonin production

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53

The __________ nucleus helps monitor the brain’s release of melatonin, which affects our _______ rhythm

suprachiasmatic, circadian

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54

How does sleep protect?

When darkness shut down the day's hunting, gathering, and travel, our distant ancestors were better off asleep in a cave, out of harm's way. Those who didn't wander around dark cliffs were more likely to leave descendants. This fits a broader principle: A species' sleep pattern tends to suit its ecological niche. Animals with the greatest need to graze and the least ability to hide tend to sleep less. Animals also sleep less, with no ill effects, during times of mating and migration

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55

how does sleep help us recuperate?

Sleep helps restore the immune system and repair brain tissue. Sleep gives resting neurons time to repair themselves, while pruning or weakening unused connections. Bats and other animals with high waking metabolism burn a lot of calories, producing free radicals, molecules that are toxic to neurons. Sleep sweeps away this toxic waste. Think of it this way: When consciousness leaves your house, workers come in to clean, saying "Good night. Sleep tidy."

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56

How does sleep help restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day’s experiences?

To sleep is to strengthen. Sleep consolidates our memories by replaying recent learning and strengthening neural connections. It reactivates recent experiences stored in the hippocampus and shifts them for permanent storage elsewhere in the cortex. Adults, children, and infants trained to perform tasks therefore recall them better after a night's sleep, or even after a short nap, than after several hours awake. Sleep, it seems, strengthens memories in a way that being awake does not.

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57

How does sleep feed creative thinking?

Dreams can inspire noteworthy artistic and scientific achievements. After working on a task, then sleeping on it, people solve difficult problems more insightfully than do those who stay awake. They also are better at spotting connections among novel pieces. To think smart and see connections, it often pays to ponder a problem just before bed and then sleep on it.

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58

how does sleep support growth?

During slow-wave sleep, which occurs mostly in the first half of a night's sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone that is necessary for muscle development.

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59

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

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60

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into rem sleep often at an inopportune time.

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61

sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep in repeated momentary awakenings.

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62

night terrors

A sleep disorder, characterized by high arousal and in appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or theee hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. (usually occurring mostly in children)

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63

what are the effects of insomnia?

Chronic tiredness. Reliance on sleeping pills and alcohol, which reduce REM sleep and lead to tolerance--a state in which increasing doses are needed to produce an effect.

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64

what are the effects of narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy attacks usually last less than 5 minutes, but they can happen at the worst and most emotional times. Everyday activities, such as driving, require extra caution.

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65

what are the effects of sleep apnea?

Fatigue and depression (as a result of slow-wave sleep deprivation). Associated with obesity (especially among men).

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66

what are the effects of night terrors?

Doubling of a child's heart and breathing rates during the attack. Luckily, children remember little or nothing of the fearful event the next day. As people age, night terrors become more and more rare.

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67

A well rested person would be more likely to have _______(trouble concentrating/quick reaction times) and a sleep-deprived person would be more likely to _______ (gain weight/fight off a cold).

quick reaction times; gain weight

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68

dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.

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69

More commonly, a dream's story line incorporates traces of previous days' ____________ ____________ and ____________.

nonsexual experiences and preoccupations

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70

How can a stimuli (like a phone ringing) be incorporated in your dream?

Our two track mind continues to monitor our environment while we sleep: sensory stimuli- phone ringing or an odor - may be instantly and ingeniously woven into the dream story

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71

Explain why we dream “to satisfy our own wishes”

He [Freud] proposed that dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings. He viewed a dream's manifest content (the apparent and remembered story line) as a censored, symbolic version of its latent content, the unconscious drives and wishes (often erotic) that would be threatening if expressed directly. Thus, a gun might be a disguised representation of a penis. Freud considered dreams the key to understanding our inner conflicts.

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72

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

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73

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)

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74

Explain why we dream “to file away memories”

The information-processing perspective proposes that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our memory. Some studies support this view. When tested the day after learning a task, those who had been deprived of both slow-wave and REM sleep did not do as well as those who had slept undisturbed

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75

Explain why we dream “to develop and preserve neural pathways”

REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation. This theory makes developmental sense. Stimulating experiences preserve and expand the brain's neural pathways. Infants, whose neural networks are fast developing, spend much of their abundant sleep time in REM sleep

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76

Explain why we dream “to reflect cognitive development”

Some dream researchers prefer to see dreams as part of brain maturation and cognitive development

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77

Explain the dream theory “Freuds wish-fulfillment”

Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve" -expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content (a hidden meaning).

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78

Explain the dream theory “information-processing”

Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories.

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79

explain the dream theory “physiological function”

Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways.

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80

explain the dream theory “activation synthesis”

REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories.

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81

explain the dream theory “cognitive development”

Dream content reflects dreamers' level of cognitive development--their knowledge and understanding. Dreams simulate our lives, including worst-case scenarios.

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82

REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. Most other mammals also experience REM rebound, suggesting that the causes and functions of REM sleep are deeply biological.

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83

Our body temperature tends to rise and fall in sync with a biological clock, which is referred to as _______ _______.

circadian rhythm

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84

During the NREM-1 sleep stage, a person is most likely to experience a. sleep spindles. b. hallucinations. c. night terrors or nightmares. d. rapid eye movements.

hallucinations

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85

The brain emits large, slow delta waves during _______ sleep.

NREM-3

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86

As the night progresses, what happens to the REM stage of sleep?

it increases in duration

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87

Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons that have been proposed to explain why we need sleep? a. Sleep has survival value. b. Sleep helps us recuperate. c. Sleep rests the eyes. d. Sleep plays a role in the growth process.

c. Sleep rests the eyes

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88

What’s the difference between narcolepsy and sleep apnea?

With narcolepsy, the person periodically falls directly into REM sleep, with no warning; with sleep apnea, the person repeatedly awakens during the night.

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89

proactive drugs

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

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90

substance use disorder

A disorder characterized by continued substance craving and use, despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk

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91

tolerance

The diminishing effect regularly use of the same dose of a drug requiring the users to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs affect

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92

withdraw

The discomfort and distress that follow what is continuing in addictive, drug or behavior

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93

addiction

Caused by ever-increasing doses of most psychoactive drugs (including prescription painkillers). Prompts user to crave the drug, to continue use despite adverse consequences, and to struggle when attempting to withdraw from it. These behaviors suggest a substance use disorder. Once in the grip of addiction, people want the drug more than they like the drug.

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94

drug relapse

An alcohol or drug relapse is the recurrence of any disease that has gone into remission or recovery.

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95

depressants

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

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96

alcohol use disorder

(popularly known as alcoholism) alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdraw, and a drive to continue problematic use

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97

what can alcohol do to you?

It can slow neural processing (drunk driving accidents happen because it causes our reactions to slow and our skill performance to deteriorate), it disrupts memory (heavy drinking results in long-term effects on the brain and cognition), it reduces self awareness and self control, it has expectancy effects( simply believing we are consuming alcohol, can cause us at our alcohols presumed influence)

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98

barbiturates/ tranquilizers

drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety, but impairing memory and judgment. (Barbiturates such as Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety.)

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99

opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; depress neural activity to rarely lessening, pain and anxiety.When repeatedly flooded with an artificial opiate, the brain eventually stops producing endorphins, its own opiates

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100

Can someone become "addicted" to shopping?

unless it becomes compulsive or dysfunctional, simply having a strong interest in Shopping is not the same as having a physical addiction to a drug. It’s typically does not involve obsessive craving in spite of known negative consequences.

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