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Define:

1. Crude birth rate

2. Crude death rate

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### 101 Terms

1

Define:

1. Crude birth rate

2. Crude death rate

1. The number of births per 1000 people.

2. The number of deaths per 1000 people.

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2

Define:

1. Infant mortality

2. Child mortality

1. The number of babies per 1000 born alive that die before the age of 1.

2. The number of children that die before their 5th birthday.

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3

Define fertility rate.

The average number of children in a family.

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4

Define life expectancy (longevity).

How old a person can expect to live given the level of development of the country.

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What is the equation for natural population change, and what causes natural population increase and decrease?

Natural population change = birth rate - death rate

If a birth rate is greater than the death rate then the population will grow causing a natural population increase.

If a birth rate is less than the death rate then the population will shrink causing a natural population decrease.

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Where are most countries with the highest rate of natural increase?

LICs in continental Africa and South East Asia, meaning the population is expanding rapidly.

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What are the five stages of the demographic transition model?

1. Birth rate and death rate are both high and fluctuating, whilst the natural population change is low and steady.

2. Birth rate remains high whilst the death rate starts to drop. As a result, the population starts to grow naturally as natural increase rates are high.

3. The birth rate starts to fall whilst death rates start to level off. As a result, the population continues to grow naturally, just not at such a rapid rate.

4. The birth rate and death rate are both low, with the birth rate just slightly exceeding the death rate meaning that the population is still growing just at a very slow rate.

5. The death rate is higher than the birth rate meaning the population starts to decline naturally.

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Population pyramids:

1. What do they show?

2. What does a wide base mean?

3. What does a tall pyramid mean?

4. What do wide steps mean?

1. They compare the population structure of the two sexes and various age groups, within the population.

2. A wide base means a high birth rate.

3. The taller the pyramid, the longer the life expectancy.

4. Wide steps mean the death rate is higher. If the slides are steep, there is a low death rate.

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Population pyramids and the DTM (demographic transition model)

Stage 1 - EXPANDING - high birth rate; rapid fall in each upward age group due to high death rates and a short life expectancy.

Stage 2 - EXPANDING - high birth rate; fall in death rate and more living in the middle age due a slightly longer life expectancy.

Stage 3 - STATIONARY - declining birth rate; low death rate, more people living to old age.

Stage 4 - CONTRACTING - low birth rate; low death rate; higher life dependancy ratio; longer life expectancy.

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What 2 things does life expectancy vary by?

1. Countries - HIC (higher) and LIC (lower)

2. Gender - M (UK) = 78 and F (UK) = 82

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What is happening to the population in the UK?

Low birth rates and death rates results in an ageing population. This is common in countries in stages 4 and 5 of the DTM.

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What are the 3 health factors making people in the UK living longer?

1. Improved health care; eradication of many diseases.

2. Drugs avoidable to treat illnesses such as cancer.

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What are the 3 economic factors making people in the UK living longer?

1. Minimum wagę and government benefits lead to improvements in the standard of living.

2. Economic and health benefits of having smaller families.

3. Changing styles of work (primary to tertiary)

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What is the environmental factor making people in the UK living longer?

Clean air act reduces emissions causing respiratory diseases.

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What is the social factor making people in the UK living longer?

Improved education about the importance of healthy diets and exercise.

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5 problems of an aging population.

1. Cost of increased care demands for increasing number of elderly people.

2. Increased needs for private pensions.

3. Increased taxes to cover the cost of increased elderly population.

4. Not enough people working to keep the economy going.

5. Fall in birth rates.

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5 benefits of an aging population.

1. Economic opportunities in catering for old people’s needs e.g. care homes.

2. Technology can be developed to help cope with the shrinking workforce.

3. New economic migrants can be encouraged bringing people to work unfilled jobs

4. Less pressure on the services such as education.

5. Less pressure on the environment as there will be a decrease in demand for hours and recourses such as food and energy

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What 6 things can be done to erase the pressures of an aging population?

1. To raise the retirement age and adopt age friendly employment policies.

2. Raise the age at which people can begin to claim pension.

3. Encourage younger people to start pension savings earlier.

4. Discourage smoking, drinking alcohol, drug taking and overeating.

5. Promoting regular exercise.

6. Encourage migration of skilled youngsters who will pay taxes and contribute to increase demands.

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What is migration?

The movement of people from one place to another. Can be permanent or temporary, forced or voluntary. It can be internal or international.

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What are source nation and host nations?

Source nations are countries where the migrants are from and host nations are countries where the migrants move to.

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What does a trade bloc mean? Give a major example. (3)

• The European Union is an example of a trade bloc.

• Every country within the bloc agreed to trade freely with the other members and also allow free movement of people between the countries.

• In 2004 the EU was enlarged to include countries such as Poland, meaning more people were able to come freely, to the UK to live and work.

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Case study of Polish migration into the UK. (4)

• Poland was one of ten nations joining the European Union on the 1st of April 2004.

• ﻿﻿Eight of these countries were Eastern European nations the other two the Mediterranean island nations of Malta and Cyprus.

• ﻿﻿The enlargement of the EU has meant that the people living in the eastern Europe could migrate into the UK freely.

• ﻿﻿No border restrictions.

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What are Poland’s push factors? (8)

• High polish unemployment at 20%.

• Lack of job availability

• Annual GDP per head was around \$12,700

• Poor living environments

• Dirty polluted cities

• Poverty

• EU: Can leave the country freely

• Poor standards of services: Education, Healthcare, Housing

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What are the UK’s pull factors? (10)

• Job availability - Lower unemployment rate and lots of vacancies

• Stable political system

• Good health service - NHS

• Better rates of pay - higher income

• Benefits availability

• Good education system

• ﻿﻿Already established network of family or people of similar ethnic/cultural origin

• ﻿﻿Many already speak English (ubiquity of language)

Free borders to EU citizens - free movement into the country

• UK skill shortages in tourism and especially construction, and unskilled labour needed in farming

• ﻿﻿Minimum wage in the UK is almost twice as high as average earnings in Poland

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What does population distribution describe?

The way in which people and spread out across the earth’s surface. This distribution is uneven and changes over periods of time.

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How do you show distrubiton on a map? - 2 ways.

1. Chloropleth map

2. Dot map

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Define:

1. Rural

2. Urban

3. Sparsely populated

4. Densely populated

1. Countryside areas, hamlets and villages

2. Built up towns and cities

3. Areas are said to be rural

4. Areas are said to be urban

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What is urbanisation?

It is the increase in proportion of a country’s population living in an urban area and, as a result, the increasing size of an urban area that causes cities to become densely populated.

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When did urbanisation begin in HIC’s and LIC’s?

Urbanisation began in HICs during the industrial revolution (19 Century) however it is a much more recent phenomena in LICs.

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How does urbanisation vary across HICs, LICs and NICs.

HIC countries (stage 4/5 DTM) are most urbanised and have been since the industrial revolution.

LIC countries (Stage 2/3) currently have the fastest rate of urban growth.

NIC cities (stage 3) - Asia and South America - are also growing at a fast.

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What are the 2 causes of urbanisation?

1. Rural to Urban Migration

2. High rate of Natural Increase

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How many people do megacities have living in them?

Have over 10 million people living in them.

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What are the 5 largest megacities?

1. Tokyo, Japan

2. Dehli, India

3. Shanghai, China

5. São Paulo, Brazil

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Where are Megacities found? (5)

• Distributed widely across the world.

• ﻿﻿Clustered in certain areas e.g. North America and South Asia.

• ﻿﻿The largest megacities are found in Asia.

• ﻿﻿Most commonly found in NICs - characterised by: rapid urban growth; growth of the manufacturing sector of the economy; strong trading relationships with other countries; and the operation of foreign-owned multinational companies (MNCs) within the country.

• It is expected that India and China will continue to have a greater number of megacities (largest populations).

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Rates of change of urbanisation. (2)

• Urbanisation in HICs such as the UK are slowing down.

• Urbanisation rates in LICS such as Brazil is speeding up

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What 2 factors affect population density?

1. Physical Factors- what the climate was like; land gradients; dense vegetation; soil quality etc.

2. ﻿﻿﻿Human Factors- the potential for the area to develop and industrialise; were there natural resources that could be harvested? Potential trade links?

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What is a global city?

Global cities are cities that interact with other cities on a global scale.

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6 features of global cities.

• Centres of finance and trade: location of bank HQs & stock exchanges

• Governance: location of national governments & TNC/MNC HQs

• ﻿﻿Diversity: Attractive to national and international migrants

• ﻿﻿Media: location of media corporations

• ﻿﻿Culture: location of entertainment venues and services

• Innovations: location of top educational institutions, universities and centres of research

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How do countries keep their global city status? (3)

• Must continue to develop and strengthen its links with other places around the world.

• As cities grow in NICs they hope to become urbanisation new global cities.

• They look to exploit trade routes by becoming a vital connection.

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What is happening to cause urbanisation in São Paulo, Brazil? (2)

• People leave the poor, peripheral regions of rural, north and north east Brazil - Caatinga

• People migrate to the rich, core regions of south east Brazil - The Golden Triangle: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janerio and Belo Horizonte

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What are the push factors of the rural North East in Brazil? (8)

• Severe drought - hard to grow crops.

• Poor medical, poor sanitation together causes disease to be rampant

• ﻿﻿Poor education due to lack of schools and teachers.

• ﻿﻿Poor standard of housing.

• ﻿﻿High unemployment due to lack of investment.

• ﻿﻿Poor infrastructure: road networks, internet coverage, electricity and water supply.

• ﻿﻿Poor quality land (subsistence farming; no fertilisers, soil erosion).

• ﻿﻿Natural disasters prevalent - drought resulting in famine, reducing quality of like and standard of living

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Pull factors of the urban South East in Brazil? (7)

• More jobs are available in the factories and industries in the city with higher wages.

• ﻿﻿Connections: Sao Paulo is the financial capital of Brazil stock exchange is located there;

• ﻿﻿International air and sea port in Sao Paulo providing global connections and employment opportunities.

• ﻿﻿Better quality housing

• ﻿﻿Better health care as more doctors and hospitals available

• ﻿﻿Improved education as more schools and teachers available

• Better standard of living

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What are the 8 key consequences of urbanisation in global cities?

1. Rural areas losing migrants

2. Urban areas receiving migrants

3. Informal sector develops

4. Housing shortage

5. Changing class structure

6. Job shortage

7. Poor education

8. Overcrowding

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Rural areas losing migrants as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo(5)

• Young people leave, leaving an aging population that is imbalanced. No one is there to reproduce and the small villages are dying out.

• ﻿﻿Farming decreases as the elderly cannot cope without the younger adults

• ﻿﻿Loss of workers may put off any industrial investment in the area.

• ﻿﻿Males are more likely to migrate and this affects the population structure (pyramid).

• Birth rates fall and death rates rise.

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Urban areas receiving migrants as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (3)

• Over 30% of the population of Sao Paulo live in favelas e.g. Heliopolis.

• Sao Paulo has varied social and cultural patterns as a result of urbanisation.

• Segregation: There is a massive contrast between rich and poor. Rich live in expensive properties and work in the skilled industry whilst the poor live in the slums/favelas and work in the informal sector (street vendors and rubbish recyclers).

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Overpopulation as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (2)

• Sao Paulo is massively overpopulated as there are too many people in the city.

• This puts strains on resources and services and costs increase- healthcare, education, employment (high demand and limited availability)

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Informal sector developing as a consequence of urbanisation. in São Paulo(5)

• Sao Paulo's economy has a very large informal sector.

• People resort to selling fruit and vegetables, and shoe polishing on the road sides. If this fails, then they turn to begging, prostitution or drugs.

• It is illegal work, and a dual economy develops between this and the formal sector of business and banking - a widening gap between the rich and poor.

• These jobs are not regulated by the state. You don't necessarily need a qualification to do them and you probably don't pay tax.

• However, informal jobs have no paid holidays, pensions or sickness benefits, and there are no rules to protect your health and safety at work

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Housing shortage as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (6)

• Too many people, not enough homes and a lack of space results in people being forced to set up favelas/slums.

• These slums develop on unwanted land: marshland that is vulnerable to flooding; on steep hillsides prone to landslides or alongside busy railway tracks.

• Overcrowding, poor sanitation and homes that are in danger of collapse, flooding or fire.

• They are unplanned, unregulated and usually overcrowded and with poor conditions.

• They are dangerous, with high crime rates and a lack of job availability.

• Most favelas have no electricity, clean water or drainage systems which all lead to people living there having a low quality of life.

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Changing class structure as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo.(4)

• An emerging middle class of young, professional, well paid men and women is creating urban and economic change in Brazil.

• Many are young graduates who left rural lives behind when they went to university in a city like Sao Paulo.

• They take jobs in central and state government, banking and financial industries, the IT industry, textile manufacturing, and jobs related to the sea port.

• These are all formal occupations that receive a regular wage

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Job shortage as consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (4)

• Jobs are very hard to find.

• The people living in the favelas tend to be uneducated and lacking skills and so cannot compete for jobs.

• Any jobs that are available are taken by the people who are educated, however these people tend to live in the city centre not in the favelas.

• Of the jobs that are available, they are usually the MNCs, working for very long hours, for very little pay in poor working conditions.

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Poor education as consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (5)

• In the favelas there is very little education.

• The children don't go to school, because families cannot afford school fees.

• It is also often a long walk to a local school.

• Also, due to the huge numbers of people migrating to the area, the numbers of children demanding schooling is too big for what is available.

• Many children end up not going to school and so try to earn money for the family by selling basic goods on the roadside or shoe shining in the informal sector.

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Overcrowding as a consequence of urbanisation in São Paulo. (5)

• Favelas are dangerous because they are so crowded.

• Fires can spread with ease, killing people.

• Likewise disease can spread rapidly because of the dirty, unsanitary conditions.

• Rubbish often builds up in the streets and open drains and lack of sewerage results in a very unhygienic environment.

• Favelas have very unclean water and this results in death because of water borne diseases e.g. typhoid and cholera.

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3 methods of favela improvement in São Paulo.

1. Site and service schemes

2. Self-help schemes

3. Government investment

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Site and service schemes to improve favelas in São Paulo(7)

• The Favela Bairro Project aimed to recognise the favelas as neighbourhoods of the city in their own right and provide the inhabitants with essential services.

• Relocated some residents from the most unsafe houses sited on steep hillsides.

• Brick houses were built with electricity, running water and sanitation pipes installed.

• Some people were allowed to buy these homes, and were given legal rights to the land.

• In Brazil schemes like these have had some success as living conditions have improved for some people.

• However, they are restricted by the steep surrounding mountains. Occasional heavy rains can also lead to flooding, impeding development.

• There is also not enough funding to make improvements for everyone living in favelas.

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Self-help schemes to improve favela in São Paulos. (5)

• People are given tools and training to improve their homes and locals have the chance to learn a trade.

• Low-interest loans may be used to help people fund these changes.

• People may be given legal ownership of the land they live on.

• The local authority sometimes provides residents with materials to construct permanent accommodation.

• This helps to improve their skills, employability and reduce unemployment.

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Government investment to improve favelas in São Paulo. (5)

• The government helped people to become homeowners.

• The Brazilian Federal Savings Bank offered 100% mortgages to families to allow them to buy a house.

• This supports the improvement of the favelas as people become responsible for upgrading and maintenance, rather than government responsibility.

• However, favelas are often built in locations with poor access and connectivity to public transport.

• This usually results in them being far from major sources of employment, which can strain the ability of the household to make regular repayments on the mortgage.

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Urbanisation in HIC global cities - Cardiff (6)

• Population of 346000 and a large sphere of influence including 1.49m people living within 32km of the city centre.

• ﻿﻿Many use the city regularly for work, shopping or entertainment.

• ﻿﻿Very well connected - mainline railway; station; bus station; motorway and major A roads.

• ﻿﻿The Principality (Millennium) Stadium is a world-class sporting and music venue that has hosted international events including the Rugby World Cup in 2015.

• ﻿﻿One large multinational - Admiral, the insurance company - has its main office here.

• ﻿﻿Several BBC TV programmes, including Sherlock and Doctor Who, are filmed on location here and in film studios based in Cardiff. These media and cultural links help to place Cardiff on the list of global cities

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What are the 6 main reasons for growth in Cardiff?

1. Economic - agricultural revolution in rural areas and machination, Industrial Revolution meant people moved to the city, transportation improvements made it more accessible.

2. Social - a better quality of life.

3. Reorganisation - Redevelopment of brownfield sites (housing, industry and leisure) in the city have attracted new people e.g. Butetown.

4. Natural population change: a rise in the fertility rate since 2002 (immigration) and increasing life expectancy.

5. Migration

6. Global connections - port, airport, tramline and major motorways.

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What are the 6 consequences (good and bad) of urbanisation in HIC Global cities.

1. Ethnic minorities: economic migrants settling in areas such as Butetown and Riverside;

2. ﻿﻿8% of Cardiff's population is from ethnic minorities - providing great mix of food, culture, religion and language

3. Cardiff is a multicultural city - across the city people live very different lives.

4. Somali population in Cardiff live in a small neighbourhood in Grangetown and Riverside, to live close to family. These areas caster for Muslims with halal shops, Muslim cultural centres and mosques.

5. Income levels: range of income is vast from minimum wage working in the service industry to six figure.

6. Cardiff has some neighbourhoods where residents have, on average, high incomes e-g. Pontcanna while other neighbourhoods have residents with much lower average incomes e.g. Riverside.

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How is São Paulo connected to other global cities? (5)

• Guarulhos International Airport with flights to 45 countries.

• Port of Santos.

• 19 of the world's 25 largest banks.

• Tourist attractions like the Banespa Tower.

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How is Cardiff connected to other global cities? (6)

• Cardiff international airport with flights to 60 different countries.

• Cardiff port.

• Superfast fibre optic internet

• Tourist attractions like the Principality stadium and Cardiff castle.

• Media - BBC Cymru.

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What is a settlement hierarchy?

If we group and classify a number of settlements according to their size and shape, the result is a settlement.

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What happens as you move up the settlement hierarchy? (3)

• ﻿﻿the size of the settlement increases

• ﻿﻿the distance between similar sized settlements increases - there are more cities than conurbations, more towns than cities and more villages than towns.

• ﻿﻿the number of services that a settlement provides increases

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What’s the rural urban continuum?

The continuum allows us to consider the extremes of place and all other settlements in between. It allows us to describe a settlement as more urban or more rural in character.

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As a settlement moves along the urban rural continuum, what happens? (4)

• It develops more functions and provides more services,

• You will therefore have access to greater range of functions and services in the larger urban areas.

• Cities are places that provide a central place for employment, shops and entertainment for people living in surrounding rural areas.

• Roads and railways connect the city to its surrounding region and allow a daily flow of commuters into and out of the city.

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What is the web, linking each city to its surrounding rural region? (3)

• Infrastructure such as roads, electricity and internet connections

• ﻿﻿Public transport - bus services, railways and airports.

• ﻿﻿Flows of people, ideas, business contacts and money.

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What does it mean if a city has a sphere of influence and where is it strongest?

A region within which the city provides an important economic and social influence.

This influence is strongest in places closest to the city and gets weaker with increasing distance.

• ﻿﻿Larger settlements and conurbations have a much larger sphere of influence than smaller ones. This means they attract people from a wider area because of the facilities they offer.

• ﻿﻿Cities such as London have a global sphere of influence, whereas a small hamlet or village may only have a sphere of influence of a couple of kilometers.

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What is the strength of a sphere of influence due to? (5)

1. Infrastructure and transport links between the urban and rural areas.

2. The distance from the urban area.

3. The size of the urban area.

4. Services such as department stores selling high order goods have a higher threshold than those selling low order goods such as newsagents.

5. The range of a service or product is the maximum distance people are prepared to travel to purchase it.

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Case study of Llantwit being influenced by surrounding towns. (4)

• It is likely that many residents of LIantwit Major will need to go outside the settlement for many services.

• he larger towns of Barry (10 miles) and Penarth (20 miles) offer an increased range of service.

• But for a larger choice, the city of Cardiff (21 miles) has an increased range of functions and services again.

• There is a GP surgery in Llantwit Major, but for any significant health treatment, residents need to visit Minor Injuries unit in Barry or UHW in Cardiff.

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Where do cities grow from in urbanisation.

The cities grew outwards from a central point CBD and took on a distinct pattern of landuse, and grow outwards from this CBD (city centre).

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Urban land use model (5)

• Cities grow outwards from a core area known as the CBD (city centre).

• Beyond the CBD is the Inner City that grew during the industrial revolution and contains terraced housing and closed down industrial buildings.

• Beyond that is the suburbs (inner and outer) which is the main residential area.

• The inner suburbs are not as nice as the outer suburbs.

• Beyond that is the rural-urban fringe where you’ll find commuter villages

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What 5 factors affect land use?

1. Land use values and space - land values are highest and available sites are more limited in the CBD where competition for land is greatest.

2. ﻿﻿Age - As towns develop outwards, the oldest buildings are in the CBD and the newest ones are on the outskirts.

3. ﻿﻿Accessibility - the CBD is where the main roads and railways from the surrounding suburbs meet.

4. ﻿﻿Wealth- Poorer people live in cheaper housing near to the CBD and inner city. They can’t afford transport and housing cost of the suburbs.

5. ﻿﻿Demand - Traditional industry used to be in the CBD whereas modern industry prefers suburban sites.

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What are the 4 main types of urban land use?

1. Shops and offices (services)

2. ﻿﻿Industry

3. Housing (residential)

4. ﻿﻿Open space

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What is the Burgees Model of land use (3)

• At the centre of all towns was the Central Business District

• As towns and cities grew, they expanded outwards in concentric circles

• The oldest parts of the city are in the centre with the youngest parts of the city at the edge

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What is the Hoyt model of land use?

• Used the Burgess model but took into account public transport

• Claimed urban areas developed in sectors along major transport routes into the city centre.

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What is counterurbanisation? (3)

• Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people and businesses from larger cities to smaller towns and rural areas.

• It is a decentralisation process.

• It is therefore the reverse of urbanisation (centralisation) and it began with people moving out of London to live in the smaller settlements within commuting distance of London (commuter/dormitory settlements).

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8 factors that caused counter urbanisation.

1. Young families want to raise their children in a pleasant, safe environment.

2. ﻿﻿Commuters: Want to live in rural areas near the cities but still have access to the cities for work.

3. ﻿﻿Employment: industry in the city has declined and is now locating in edge of city locations and online work.

4. ﻿﻿Transport: improved road and rail links, together with the increase in car ownership enable people to live away from where they work and commute.

5. ﻿﻿Housing: the type and style of homes people want are more available and affordable (cheaper) in rural areas.

6. ﻿﻿Change in family status: people move as a result of increase in family wealth or size.

7. ﻿﻿Environment: moving away from noise, air and visual pollution of the cities caused by lots of traffic and declining industry.

8. ﻿﻿Social Factors: factors such as low crime rate and good schools make rural areas attractive to young families

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What is the rural idyll? (3)

• An idealized, romanticized construct that presents rural areas as happier, healthier and with fewer problems than urban areas.

• The rural is cast as an idyllic place to live, portrayed as having beautiful landscapes, more neighbourly communities, and a better quality of life.

• A definite pull factor

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6 impacts of counter urbanisation.

1. Population Structure: Young/middle aged married couples with children move in along the some wealthy retired people wanting to escape the city.

2. ﻿﻿Social: There might be conflict between incomers and the original inhabitants e.g. increase housing cost.

3. ﻿﻿Housing: Rural areas grow and villages increase in size, with increasing amounts of detached and semi detached houses and renovated barns.

4. ﻿﻿Services: more shops, enlarged school, modern pubs, restaurants and garages due to increased demands.

5. ﻿﻿Transport: Good bus service; most families have one or two roads; improved roads; increased traffic and congestion.

6. Environment - increased noise and pollution from traffic and a loss of farmland and open space.

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What are the 4 impacts of commuting?

1. Congestion is worst during the early morning and late afternoons when commuters are travelling to and from work - long delays.

2. ﻿﻿Environmental effects: air pollution, noise pollution, visual pollution, habitat destruction

3. ﻿﻿Economic effects: congestion at peak times; wasted time in traffic jams; cost of building and maintenance; delays; cost of fuel

4. Social effects: increased accidents; health problems; property destruction from expansion; overcrowding; dangerous for cyclists and pedestrians

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4 factors causing decreased commuting

1. ﻿﻿Rapid growth of Internet and email removes the need to be in the same physical office as co-workers.

2. ﻿﻿Increased coverage and quality of mobile phone network providers enable people to stay constantly in touch with co-workers.

3. ﻿﻿Rapid growth of broadband has led to many companies encouraging people to work from home/remotely.

4. ﻿﻿COVID19 and increased remote working.

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What are the two types of rural areas?

• Accessible Rural Areas are those nearest the cities. Here you will find commuter settlements/dormitory settlements. These areas experience population growth as young families move in e.g. Llantwit Major

• ﻿﻿Remote Rural Areas are the rural areas that are further from the CBD; they are more remote and isolated and in less demand. These areas mostly experience population decline as youngsters tend to move away and only really the retired/second home owners move in.

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7 features of assessable rural areas.

1. Reduction/change in employment opportunities - reduction in primary jobs; increase in tertiary jobs associated with retailing

2. Closure of village shops due to increase online shopping.

3. ﻿﻿Increase in house prices in accessible rural areas in the commuter belt overheating

4. ﻿﻿Locals, especially young people are unable to purchase homes as too expensive

5. ﻿﻿Population grows - particularly young families increased demand for services such as schools, doctors, pub.

6. ﻿﻿Villages sprawl outwards and destroy animal habitats/farmland.

7. More cars on the roads so greater pollution/congestion and likelihood of accidents

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features of remote rural areas.

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1. What is deprivation?

2. What is the cycle of deprivation?

1. The lack of key features that are regarded as necessary for a reasonable standard of living and quality of life. Deprivation in rural areas is usually characterised by a lack of public services, healthcare and educational services.

2. The cycle where a family living in poverty is unable to improve its lifestyle due to the negative factors of low income, poor housing and education, which keeps it in a state of poverty.

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Case study of deprivation in Brecon. (4)

• Less primary (agricultural) jobs; more tertiary (services/tourism) jobs

• ﻿﻿Closure of rural banks and post offices (post office in Brecon is located inside the Coop)

• Increase in house prices (second homes for tourists), outpricing locals

• ﻿﻿Shops forced to close as they cannot compete with online shopping/home delivery

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What is a sustainable community?

A community that is able to support the needs of the residents with minimal environmental impact.

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How can rural change be made more sustainable? (6)

• Reliable and frequent public transport - reduces isolation and number of vehicles on the road.

• ﻿﻿Availability of jobs - encourage industry to locate there.

• ﻿﻿Education - invest in primary and secondary education to keep people in the area.

• ﻿﻿Healthcare - increase provision and provide transport if necessary.

• ﻿﻿Village services - encouraging them to continue e.g. post office inside the village shop.

• ﻿﻿Renewable technology - encourage use of solar power/wind energy in rural areas.

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What are the 4 problems with urban change?

1. Where do we build? On Greenfield or brownfield land?

2. Community conflicts? Not everyone in the community wants the same thing.

3. Existing community - people do not want change in their local area.

4. What do we build? Eco-housing is usually more expensive to build and therefore may not be affordable.

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Define:

1. Brownfield sites

2. Greenfield sites

3. Greenbelt land

1. Have been built on before and are now abandoned/derelict. Normally associated with
urban areas and urban regeneration/ redevelopment.

2. Have not been built on before. Often rural/countryside areas - often the rural urban fringe/greenbelt land.

3. Land that surrounds the cities and is protected by law from urban development - designed to limit city growth.

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1. Cheaper to build on - reduced building/development cost.

2. Provide a clean sheet for planning design.

3. Clean, uncontaminated land.

4. May encourage rural development

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1. Damages environment and destroys animal habitats

2. Are not favoured by environmentalists, as it encourages urban sprawl.

3. Often difficult to get planning permission on green sites.

4. Inadequate services in rural areas

5. Will result in increased commuting

6. Can spoil rural character/community

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Case study: Plasdwr Cardiff - the new suburb. (4)

• Mixed use development, containing new homes, schools and community facilities in north west Cardiff.

• It’s a very important feature of Cardiff’s Local Development Plan.

• A 21st century garden city, designed around the natural landscape and will have green open spaces.

• Will contain many things such as shops, healthcare facilities, leisure centres and public transport links.

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Plasdwr Cardiff:

1. 4 social impacts

2. 2 economic impacts

3. 4 environmental impacts

1. The hope that 50% of people use public transport is a long way off; this development will increase the population of north west Cardiff by at least 20,000;

this will put massive pressure on local GP surgeries that currently have limited capacity at for new patients;

this will put massive pressures on current educational facilities that currently have limited capacity for new pupils.

2. Increased crime risk with empty properties in the day time; house prices rise.

3. Considerable loss of green open space and farmland;

increased flood risk from urbanisation, increased vehicle on the roads - enhanced greenhouse effect and pollution; animal habitats destroyed; increased congestion on the roads.

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1. Already developed, reducing urban sprawl.

2. Existing buildings can be split up.

3. Improves the urban area because it uses unsightly areas for building developments.

4. Doesn’t destroy valuable farm land

5. Encourages reurbanisation

6. Easier planning permission.

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2. More costly and time consuming.

3. Higher land prices.

4. Uncertain market value due to the stigma attached.

5. More expensive as land needs to be cleared first.

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What are the 6 main features of BedZed as a brownfield site?

• Built on a brownfield site and is largest zero-energy and carbon-neutral urban village development in the United Kingdom, located in Sutton, London.

• Second-hand construction materials: Reused structural steel was used in the workplace- framing structure, and reclaimed timber and brick for the walls, often sourced locally.

• ﻿﻿Energy efficient: Double glazing and thicker walls were used to offer high levels of insulation. This helps to keep the rooms warm in winter and cool in summer.

• ﻿﻿Low energy use: The heat used for cooking and heating water is stored and reused. All the flats are equipped with low-energy light bulbs and appliances, and the meters are visible to ensure awareness of the electrical energy waste

• Self-sufficient heating and electricity: Solar panels generate electricity, and a small-scale combined heat and power plant provides hot water. The power plant is fuelled by tree waste that would otherwise go to landfill.

• This means that BedZed does not need to use further electricity from the National Grid that is likely to have been generated by non-renewable energy sources. Any surplus electricity is returned to the National Grid.

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4 social effects of regeneration of Cardiff’s Bay.

1. New housing, including affordable housing in places like Penarth Marina.

2. New jobs created meaning locals could earn steady wage and improve their standards of living.

3. New facilities e.g. The Red Dragon Centre.

4. New public transport improvements.

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4 economic effects of regeneration of Cardiff Bay.

1. Tertiary services replaced the manufacturing industry - leisure, tourism, offices and retail.

2. Cardiff Bay retail park,

3. Governance has located here like the Senedd.

4. MNC’s attracted to the areas e.g. IKEA.

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5 environmental effects of regeneration of Cardiff’s Bay.

1. Old derelict housing and industry have been uprated.

2. New sculptures have made the bay look more attractive.

3. Barrage created the largest fresh water lake in Europe.

4. Increased bin provision

5. Tree planting

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