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Adams’s “Midnight Appointments”

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Adams’s “Midnight Appointments”

Adams lost Election of 1800 – Appointed “Federalist Judges”

before leaving office – Jefferson (Dem. Repub. taking office) – Led to Marbury v. Madison

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Thomas Jefferson

Author of Declaration of Independence – 1st Sec. of State – 2nd V.P. – 3rd President (1801-1809) – Democratic-Republican – Burr was his 1st V.P. (killed Hamilton) – Lewis and Clark – Embargo Act- strict constructionist except

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Marbury v. Madison

1803 – Judicial review – Response to Adams’ Midnight Judges – Supreme Court decides Constitutionality of laws

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Louisiana Purchase

1803 – TJ’s dilemma; Napoleon sold-why? Needed $ for war in Europe & Haitian Rebellion (Toussaint L’Overture); strict constructionism, dream of yeoman farmer-TJ

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Embargo Act

1806-1808 – Jefferson’s Presidency – U.S. would not trade with Britain or France – Trying to stay neutral – Both nations harassing U.S. ships – Brits impressing U.S. sailors

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Tripoli War (Barbary Wars)

(1801-1805) – President Jefferson – Tripoli (Libya) – U.S. refusal to pay tribute to the Barbary States – Mosquito Fleet (Jeffs) sent to protect ships

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Chesapeake Affair

1807 – USS Chesapeake attacked and boarded by HMS Leopard – Impressment –

Led to Embargo Act of 1807 (non-importation and non-export) – Hurt U.S. – Led to War of 1812

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Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek

Gov. William Henry Harrison (Indian Terr.) v. Tecumseh’s Indian

Confederation – Battle in Indiana (1811) – continued into War of 1812 – American victory – Tippecanoe and Tyler Too (election of 1840 – died 30 days into his term)

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Hartford Convention

New England’s opposition to War of 1812 – They were hurt more economically – threatened secession – Delivered to Washington D.C. after conclusion of War – Death of Federalist Party

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Macon’s Bill #2

Whoever (G.B. or Fr.) stopped seizing U.S. ships 1st the U.S. would trade with that nation – Napoleon jumped at the chance (it furthered his Continental Plan)

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Treaty of Ghent

1814 – Ends the War of 1812

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Non-Intercourse Act

1809 – Lift Embargo Act of 1807 on all shipping unless bound for G.B. and Fr.

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War of 1812

Causes= land hunger & Warhawks, impressment, Native-American troubles in Ohio River Valley (Tecumseh); burning of D.C., Star-Spangled Banner; N.O., Treaty of Ghent- status same as before war

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Henry Clay's America System

---Tariff or tax imposed on imported goods to protect goods and industry within a nation

---2nd B.U.S.

---Infrastructural improvements- canals, roads

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James Monroe

– 5th President – Democratic-Republican – Acquisition of Florida – Missouri Compromise – Era of Good Feelings- Monroe Doctrine

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Era of Good Feelings

after the War of 1812: peace, expansion, one party, surge in nationalism

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Erie Canal

Upstate N.Y. – Hudson River to Lake Erie – Completed 1825 – Population surge in Western N.Y. – Helps with Westward expansion and trade- American System

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McCulloch v. Maryland

1819 – Court imposed “Necessary and Proper” clause of the Constitution – Implied Powers – Fed. Govt. can pass laws not expressly provided to the states

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Gibbons v. Ogden

1824 – Power to regulate interstate navigation (and thus trade) was granted to Congress in the Constitution

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Rush-Bagot Agreement

1817 – Between U.S. and G.B. – Demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain and border between U.S. and British N. Am.

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Missouri Compromise

1820 – Prohibited slavery north of 36 30’ – Missouri admitted as slave state – Maine as free state – Henry Clay- balance the powers in the Senate

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Monroe Doctrine

1823 – European nations should no longer colonize or interfere in the affairs of the nations of the Americas

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Tallmadge Amendment

Proposed Amendment to Missouri Compromise – Missouri had to halt further introduction of slaves into the Territory – Calls for gradual emancipation – Passes the House – Never voted on in the Senate

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American Colonization Society

organization attempted to resettle freed blacks & runaway slaves in the North to Liberia; never really took off; supported by some abolitionists, slaveholders

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Adams-Onis Treaty

President James Monroe – U.S. acquired Spanish Florida for $5 mil. And gave up claims to Texas

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Cumberland (National) Road

(1811-1839) – One of the 1st major improved highways built by Fed. Govt. – Cumberland, MD. To Vandalia, ILL

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Cultural nationalism

post War of 1812- pro-western expansion, anti-Europe, believed in unlimited prosperity, patriotic- nationalistic textbooks, artwork and books

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Economic nationalism

tariffs or tax on imported goods (revenue and protective), American System,

American questioned this after Panic of 1819

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Second Bank of the United States

Chartered in 1816 – Pres. Madison – Charter set to expire 1836-

Hated by Jackson – After it’s not re-chartered led to “pet” banks

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Robert Fulton

Developed 1st steam powered ship

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Clipper Ships

Fast sail ships – “Clipped” time off the voyage – cargo ships – blockade runner

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Factory System

Samuel Slater- spinning jenny- textiles- hourly wages > paid by the job or piece-

Unskilled laborers in factories supervised by bosses- poor working conditions- assembly lines-

first in New England


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Interchangeable Parts

Eli Whitney – Industrial Revolution – Rifle manufacturing- assembly lines

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Lowell System

Textile factory system – N.E. young, single women typically unskilled laborers

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Market Revolution

workers in the cities make products for farmers & farmers make food for workers-

regional specialization, assembly lines, transportation explosion= canals, gravel roads, clipper

ships, river steam boats, then RR- corporations raising capital- mechanical inventions- cheap

labor- beginnings of unions, Commonwealth v. Hunt; beginning of middle class; women=

“separate spheres”

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Godey’s Lady’s Book

first magazine marketed to middle class women; focused on fashion, homemaking, children; shopping advocated education for women

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Utopian Communities

Many were communes – Burned-over district of Upstate N.Y. – Oneida

Community (John Noyes)= Christian perfectionism, silverware, multiple partners, New Harmony

(Robert Owen) Shakers - celibate commune==most were socialist and religious responses to the

Industrial Revolution; Bible communism

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Ideal spiritual state “transcends” the physical – Inner light-

Thoreau= “On Civil Disobedience” Walden Pond; Emerson*= The American Scholar;*

Brook Farm- George Ripley

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Romantic Movement

Hudson River School, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper,

Leatherstockings, Nathaniel Hawthorne

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Social Activist – Leader of Women’s Rights Movement – Seneca Falls (author

of Declaration of Sentiments) – Supporter of Temperance Movement

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Era of Reform Movements

temperance, abolitionism, education, 2nd Great Awakening, asylum

Movement, (Dorothea Dix), penitentiaries, Auburn System

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Susan B. Anthony

Women’s Rights Movement Leader – Tried to unify women’s rights and civil rights –  Co-founder of National Women’s Suffrage Association

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Married Women’s Property Act

No more coverture, gave women legal rights as property; husband & wife have equal control of assets, husband no longer control inheritances from wife

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Catherine Beecher Stowe

Treatise on Domestic Economy; advice on home-making and raising children; advocate of women as teachers and domestic help (maids) to become more self-supportive

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Cult of domesticity

women were now moral leaders of the home, responsible for children’s upbringing,

result of Republican Motherhood & industrialization, good and bad; separate spheres

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Horace Mann

educational reform= prepare the child to live in a democracy- improvements- grades for ages, nurture the child, school terms, female teachers, normal schools

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William McGuffey

first mass produced textbook- themes were sobriety, punctuality, work ethic-

characteristics that make a good worker in the Industrialized Age

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2nd Great Awakening

appealed to fear & damnation, salvation achieved thru faith & hard work;

appealed to middle class and women, Charles G. Finney, itinerant preachers, revivals,

feminization of religion; Lyman Beecher- Sabbatarianism; Timothy Dwight; Millennealism; response to


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Temperance movement

Washingtonians, American Temperance Society, Neal Dow

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Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) – Seneca Falls N.Y. – 1st Women’s rights convention in

U.S. –Elizabeth Cady Stanton – Wrote Declaration of Sentiments – Inspired by

2nd Great Awakening- Lucretia Mott- Susan B. Anthony

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Grimke Sisters

Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837), first female

public speakers, abolitionists and feminists

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Nat Turner

Led failed most violent slave revolt in Virginia- believed God had chosen him to lead

slaves to freedom – Flayed, beheaded, and Quartered- earlier Denmark Vessey & Stono Rebellion

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Sojourner Truth

abolitionist & women’s rights; “Ain’t I a Woman,”  opponent of what slavery did to families- separating children from parents

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Frederick Douglass

abolitionist, “4th of July Speech”, escaped slave, North Star, Lincoln advisor

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William Lloyd Garrison

immediate rather than gradual emancipation, The Liberator, burned Constitution

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Harriet Tubman

Underground RR, particularly after Fugitive Slave Law

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Sectionalism & Immigration of 1840s & 1850s: German, Irish, Chinese

Early immigrants – Germans

(political unrest – settled in Penn.) – Irish (Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849) – Settled in larger cities of East – not wanted – Catholic); Chinese- gold rush & then transcontinental RR; wage slaves in the North; Midwest & Northeast tied together- RR

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John Quincy Adams

Sec. of State under Monroe (helped author Monroe Doctrine) – Adams-Onis Treaty (Florida Purchase Treaty-from Spain) – Corrupt Bargain (Election of 1824) – 6th President (1825- 1829) – American System (Higher Tariffs (protective) for internal improvements, National Bank (singular currency)

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Demographics of the antebellum South

Aristocracy (planter elite & code of chivalry, defense of women, paternalistic), small planters or

Farmers (owned 20 or less), Poor whites- (hillbillies, white trash, no slaves but defended slavery-

why?), mountain people, freed blacks, slaves ( field hands, 31yrs. old)

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“King Cotton,” “peculiar institution”, “Sold Down the River”, black belt, cotton gin, southern hierarchy, “jumping the broom,” fictive kin

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American Antislavery Society

Founded by William Lloyd Garrison – Abolitionist- burned copy of the

Constitution- wrote The Liberator

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Antimasonic Party

19th century 3rd political party – Opposed Freemasonry – Pres. Candidate


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Andrew Jackson

Battle of New Orleans (1815) – Election of 1824 (Lost “Corrupt Bargain” to J.Q. Adams) – 7th President (1829-1837) – Spoils System – rotation of offices- Vetoed 2nd Bank of the

United States (too much power to rich and powerful)- Panic of 1837 - Nullification Crisis – Indian Removal- enhanced role of the president- founded Democratic Party

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Common man

universal male suffrage?- demographic shift to the western states (Ky, Tenn, Ala, etc.)-

party nominating conventions instead of “King Caucus= popular campaigning & strategies _ “Old

Hickory” or “Tippecanoe & Tyler, too!” or “Fifty-four forty or fight!”- mudslinging- “log cabin & hard cider” campaign- two party system- rise of 3rd parties

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Bank Wars

function of the B.U.S.; Jackson’s belief about the B.U.S., veto; pet banks; wildcat banks; Nicholas Biddle; Specie Circular; Panic of 1837

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Eaton Affair

Petticoat Affair-John Eaton’s newlywed wife vs. snotty S.C. cabinet wives- Split Jackson’s

cabinet- Jackson hated Calhoun after that

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John C. Calhoun

Jackson’s VP for Jackson’s first term- held responsible for Nullification Crisis- staunch

defender of slavery- later on known as a fire-eater- slavery is a “positive good”

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Martin Van Buren

8th President (1837-1841) – Democrat – Aroostook War – Panic of 1837 – Unsuccessfully ran as Free Soil candidate in 1848

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Whig Party

(1832-1856) – Opposed Jackson and the Democratic Party - 2 Presidents Elected (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor) – Old Federalist Party – Supported American System

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Tariff of Abominations

1828 – Protective Tariff – To protect U.S. Industry – British reduced cotton imports – Hurt South – Caused Nullification Crisis

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South Carolina Exposition and Protest

(1828) – John C. Calhoun – V.P. at time under J.Q. Adams –

Protest Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)- argument of nullification


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South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification

Declared tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void in S.C. – Began Nullification Crisis – President Jackson in favor of strong Fed. Govt. – Threatened Calhoun

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Compromise Tariff

1833 – Clay and Calhoun – Go back to tariff numbers of 1816 Tariff – Reduce #s of 1828 Tariff – Resolved Nullification Crisis

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Trail of Tears

(1838) – Forced relocation of Cherokee Indians in American S.E. – (Indian Removal Act of 1830) – Georgia to Oklahoma – President Jackson’s policy

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Indian Removal Act

assimilation- Move Indians west of the Mississippi River – Indian Removal Act of 1830 – President Jackson has about 100,000 Indians removed – Trail of Tears

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Maysville Road Veto

Congress passed a bill to fund a road in Kentucky (extension of Cumberland Rd) – Jackson vetoed bill – Internal improvements within a state should not be federally funded - Unconstitutional

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Worcester v. Ga

one of John Marshall’s last rulings; Cherokee should be allowed to stay on lands in Georgia; Jackson’s quote

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Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

Cherokee claimed “They were a foreign nation in the sense of their Constitution and was not subject to Georgia jurisdiction” – Court claimed Cherokee were a “dominated, domestic, dependent nation” and the Supreme Court had no jurisdiction

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Independent Treasury Act

President van Buren – Fed. Govt. is exclusively responsible for managing its own funds – Treasury to be completely independent of the nation’s banking system

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William Henry Harrison

9th President (1841) – Tippecanoe and Tyler Too - Hard Cider campaign– pneumonia (died) – Shortest term of any President (30 days) – Tyler becomes "accidental" Pres.

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Know-Nothing Party

also known as the American Party; Semi-secret organization (1846-1853) originally named Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner-   Nativists – 1850s – Backlash to Irish Catholic immigration; also opposed to Chinese immigration

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Manifest Destiny

"obvious fate," John O’Sullivan, Lady Columbia- Push factors= Panic of 1837,

Mormons-religious persecution, German/Irish immigration

Pull factors= economic- fertile land, fur trade, gold/silver rushes, trade with China ,

market economy (resources & markets), American perception of land ownership, slavery

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Texas Revolution

laws immigrants had to abide by; Alamo & Goliad; Treaty of Velasco, Sam Houston;

Lone Star Republic, slavery and Annexation

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Oregon Treaty

1846 – Between U.S. and G.B. – "Fifty-four forty or fight!"   Oregon boundary

set at 49th parallel; U.S does not have to worry about a front-war

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Mexican-American War

(1846-1848) – Mr. Polk’s War- Over Texas and border dispute –Supported by most Democrats – Opposed by Whigs – Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo lead to Mexican Cession

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Opposition to the War

Wilmot Proviso- proposal to prohibit slavery in any new territories conquered

from the Mexican-American War-never passed in Congress, Spot Resolution= Rep. Lincoln

Henry David Thoreau- Civil Disobedience

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__Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalg__o

1848 – Ended Mexican-American War – Mexico ceded

American S.W. – U.S. paid Mexico $15 mil.- called Mexican Cession

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Webster-Ashburton Treaty

1842 – Settled dispute over border of Maine & Minnesota – Ended

Aroostook or Lumberjack War

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Ostend Manifesto

Plan to purchase Cuba for $120 mil. – If Spain refused U.S. would be justified in taking it – For slave territory – Outraged Northerners – It failed

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William Walker Expedition

filibusterers are expansionists who attempted to take over Latin American

countries like Nicaragua

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Gold Rush in California

Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill (1849) – 49ers=300,000 to California –

Native-American pop. devastated by disease – Chinese immigration but discrimination; Cal. statehood in 1850

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James Polk

(1845-1849) – Jacksonian Democrat – 1st “Dark Horse” Candidate – Manifest Destiny – Secured Oregon Territory – Mex.-Am. War

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Gadsden Purchase

last land acquisition for the lower 48 contiguous states- southern strip of Az. & N.M. to build a southern transcontinental RR

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Zachary Taylor

“Old Rough and Ready” – 12th President (1849-1850) – Whig – Died in office of gastroenteritis after July 4th celebration – Fillmore = pres.

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Compromise of 1850

Henry Clay – California (Free State), Slave Trade Abolished in D.C., Western land gained in Mex.-Am. War (Popular Sovereignty), Fugitive Slave Act – Texas compensation-

Great Triumvirate- Stephen Douglas

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Fugitive Slave Act

1850 – Called for return of escaped slaves (from free states back to their owners – Part of Compromise of 1850- negative impact b/w North & South; South sent slave bounty

hunters to the North; North= "Bloodhound Bill"- abolitionists; personal liberty laws, vigilance


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Uncle Tom’s Cabin

(1852) – Harriet Beecher-Stowe – 2nd best-selling book of 19th Century (Bible) – Theme-Slavery is bad for everyone; Aunt Phillis’s Cabin is the southern response

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Hinton Helper

Impending Crisis in the South (1857)- slavery was bad for southern economy, particularly for non-slaveholding whites

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George Fitzhugh

fire-eater, Cannibals All & Sociology of the South; Slavery is better off than wage slaves of northern factories; Slaves are better off here than in Africa, Slaves were treated better b/c they were expensive

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Franklin Pierce

14th President (1853-1857) – Democrat – Dark Horse Candidate – Kansas-Nebraska Act (Repealed Missouri Compromise) – Ostend Manifesto

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