# PY 131 Chapter 19: Vibrations and Waves

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Amplitude

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### 20 Terms

1

Amplitude

________ refers to the distance from the midpoint to the crest or trough of the wave, and it equals the maximum displacement from equilibrium.

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2

Doppler effect

The ________ is evident when an ambulance siren passes you, and you hear the changing pitch.

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3

straight dashed line

The ________ represents the midpoint of the vibration, called the equilibrium position.

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4

Light

________ and sound are vibrations that propagate through space as waves.

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5

periodic wiggle

A(n) ________ in both space and time is a wave.

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6

organ pipes

Standing waves are set up in musical instruments 'strings when they are played, and in the air in ________, trumpets, clarinets, and even soda- pop bottles.

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7

Sound

________ is a mechanical wave that requires a material medium to vibrate.

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8

Pendulums

________ are used by oil and mineral prospectors to detect slight differences in the acceleration due to gravity, which is affected by the densities of underlying formations.

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9

right frequency

Standing waves are easy to make by shaking a rope or rubber tube with the ________.

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10

longitudinal vibrations

Standing waves can be produced with either transverse or ________.

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11

Antinodes

________ occur halfway between nodes.

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12

curve

A sine ________ represents a wave, which can be created by a bob attached to a spring undergoing vertical simple harmonic motion.

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13

Wavelengths

________ are measured in meters for waves at the beach, centimeters for ripples in a pond, and nanometers for light waves.

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14

Wave motion

________ transfers energy from a source to a receiver without transferring matter.

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15

electromagnetic wave

Light is a(n) ________ that can propagate through a vacuum.

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16

wave speed

The distance is one wavelength and the time is one period, so ________= wavelength /period.

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17

Frequency

________ describes how frequently a vibration occurs, and it is measured in hertz (Hz), which represents the number of to- and- fro vibrations made in one second.

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18

Interference

________ is a characteristic of all wave motion, including water waves, sound waves, and light waves.

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19

Doppler effect

The ________ also occurs for light, and an increase in frequency is called a blue shift, while a decrease is called a red shift.

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20

right frequency

Standing waves can be set up in a tub of water or in a cup of coffee by sloshing them back and forth with the ________.

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