The Enlightenment

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When did scholars begin truly questioning the ideas of the ancient times?

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When did scholars begin truly questioning the ideas of the ancient times?

the 1500’s/renaissance

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What did the Enlightenment bring?

  1. people questioning and observing the natural world

  2. scholars questioning the ancient assumptions

  3. advances in math, astronomy, chemistry, and printing that brought a philosophical movement

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What was the Ptolemaic System?

a geocentric (earth-centered) model of the universe. this model includes a fixed, motionless earth with a series of crystal-like transparent spheres (the layers of the atmosphere), heavenly bodies of light, and God existing behind the 10th sphere.

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Who created the Ptolemaic System?

Claudius Ptolemy

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What sphere was God believed to exist beyond?

The tenth

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Who was Copernicus?

A mathematician who offered the heliocentric model of the universe

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What is the heliocentric model?

A model that defines the sun as the center of the universe, with the moon being the only thing revolving around the Earth.

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Who was Kepler?

The man who observed that the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical, rather than circular.

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Who was Galileo?

The mathematician who wanted to discover the composition of planets and motion of the universe. he created the telescope to more closely observe space, discovered the stars weren’t heavenly bodies but composed of matter. this contradicted the bible, leading to his arrest and retraction of his discoveries.

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Who was Issac Newton?

The man who defined the universal laws of motion and the universal laws of gravity. this explained why planets move in elliptical orbits. (gravity)

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what did Newton’s laws do?

They defined the universe 1 big machine.

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Who was Descartes?

The man who developed analytical geometry (proofs), and used strict rules of reason & rationality to arrive at basic truths.

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Who stated “I think, therefore I am.”


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Who was Robert Boyle?

The founder of modern chemistry.

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What is the scientific method?

A “new” way of systematically collecting and analyzing evidence.

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Who was Francis Bacon?

The man who developed inductive reasoning to proceed ideas from the particular to the general

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Essay Question: What is the connection between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?

The Scientific Revolution was the period in Europe when many discoveries about science and mathematics were made. Scientists began questioning what they knew and created methods of logic, observation, reason, and rationale to make more accurate assumptions about the natural world. One structure of rationale was re-invented, known as the “scientific method”. This structure used testable questions to arrive at solutions and to confirm what was true and not. Following the Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment thinkers used these same ideas of logic and reasoning to come to their own discoveries, often with a more philosophical approach. They began using proofs as to why the world was the way it was. They produced radical new thoughts on society, politics, and religion. These ideas are the basis of Western culture, leading to much of what we are taught today.

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Who was Hobbes?

The philosopher who wrote the Leviathan. He said that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked. Without governments, life would be horrible. To escape that life, people entered into a “social contract” giving up some of their rights to strong governments in turn for order.

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Who was John Locke?

The philosopher who reasoned that humans created government, so the government receives its power from the people. He believed that all people had innate natural rights that could not be taken away. He believed in Tabula Rasa (all men are created equal). He thought that government was created to protect these rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. If the government fails the people, it is the right and duty of the people to replace it with something that will.

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What idea does Tabula Rasa bring?

All men are created equal.

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Whose ideas were the basis of the American Revolution?

John Locke

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Who was Voltaire?

The philosopher who was the champion of free speech and religion. He criticized the church and Christianity, created enemies because of his challenges to the church and government, and created the idea of Deism.

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What is Deism?

The idea that the world was a machine that god set in motion to run on its own.

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Who was Baron de Montesquieu?

The philosopher who discovered that governments rule with three powers. Executive, legislative, and judicial branches. He thought that leaders became too powerful if authority was unchecked. He developed a system of checks and balances through the separation of power.

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Who was Jean Rousseau?

The philosopher who determined that governments could only be good if they derived their power from the “general will”.

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Who was Cesar Baccaria?

The philosophers who believed that punishments should not exercise brutality. He wrote of the abuses of justice, denounced the use of torture, and thought that capital punishment should be abolished.

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Who was Adam Smith?

The philosopher who thought that government should stay out of business, having three different roles; military, police, and public works.

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What is Laissez-faire?

Government should be left from economics. “A policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interference.”

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Who was Denis Diderot?

The publisher of encyclopedias. (28 volumes)

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How were ideas spread?

Encyclopedias, news magazines, books, newspapers, and salons.

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What is a salon?

A meeting place where ideas flowed freely among people.

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What is Rococo?

An art style that emphasized grace, elegance, and gentleness. It used gold, curves, light, and enchantment, speaking of the pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love.

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How is Maria Theresa the Mother of America (but not really)?

  1. Charles VI, of Austria dies without a son.

  2. She became the Queen of Austria.

  3. War- Prussia/France v Austria/G.B.

  4. She was unhappy with the treaty.

  5. Allegiances- France/Austria Prussia/G.B.

  6. Marie Antoinette to Louis XVI were married.

  7. 7 Years War aka the French and Indian War was lost by France and Austria.

  8. Taxes and Land Restrictions in America.

  9. American Revolution.

  10. France helps America.

  11. France goes bankrupt.

  12. French Revolution.

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What musical shift occurred during the Enlightenment?

A movement from church to secular

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What did composers discover in the Enlightenment?

The “natural laws” of music

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What is Baroque music?

A genre of music that focused on ornamental and elaborate melodies.

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Who were famous baroque composers?

Bach, Pachelbel, Vivaldi, and Handel

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What is Classical music?

A genre of music with clean divisions between melodies, which creates contrast.

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Who were famous classical composers?

Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven

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What was the Seven Years War?

When France and Britain fought over colonial empires, France joining with Austria against Britain and Prussia. A stalemate led to the 1763 Treaty of Paris.

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What did the Treaty of Paris lead to?

France transferred Canada and all lands east of Mississippi to Britain, allowing Britain to become the world’s greatest colonial power.

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What did the Treaty of Paris lead to in America?

Britain wanted more revenue from the colonies, imposing hefty taxes, leading to the American Revolution. Newfound freedom saw the 13 colonies create a new social contract.

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What social contracts do the 13 colonies make?

The Declaration of Independence sets the agenda for a new nation that is based on the protection of freedoms. The Articles of Confederation sorted out the affair of the state, but is too weak to function.

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What did the Constitutional Convention of 1787 do?

It proposed a federal system of government and divided the government into three branches. The Bill of Rights was adopted into it in order to protect the rights of the people.

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Who was Wollstonecraft?

The philosopher who supported equal rights for women on the philosophical argument that beacause women had reason and rationale, they should have the same rights as men. She wrote “The Vindication of the Rights of Women”.

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Who was Olympe Gouges?

The philosopher who wrote “The Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen” during the French Revolution. She was then guilltined.

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What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen?

A documents that stated the ideas of the Revolution, including freedom of press and equality of all men. (Not Women)

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What is the Old Regime?

The French political system before the French Revolution.

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What is the First Estate?

The estate of the clergy, those who ran the church and owned 10% of the land.

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What is the Second Estate?

The estate of the Nobility, those who held positions of importance throughout France and owned 25 to 30% of the land.

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What is the Third Estate?

The estate of the commoners, 98% of the population who owned 65% of the land, and paid all taxes (Taille).

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Who was Louis XVI?

The French King at the French Revolution who created deep debt for his country.

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Who was Marie Antoinette?

The extravagant wife of Louis XVI and daughter of Maria Theresa who became the enemy of France.

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Who was Jean-Paul Marat?

A radical revolutionary who published The People’s Friend, in which, he called for blood shed for the revolution.

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Who were San-Culottes?

Radical members of the revolution who did not wear knee britches.

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Who was Jacques-Rene Herbert?

The radical revolutionary who led the de-christianization movement

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Who was George Danton?

One of the main members of the revolutionaries was killed because he was not radical enough. He made a speech.

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Who was Maximilian Robespierre?

The leader of the committee of public safety who led a more radical, dangerous France. Known as the Incorruptible.

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What was the Reign of Terror?

The period of time where the revolution became very violent, 200 to 400 thousand people were slaughtered.

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What was the Great Terror and the Republic of Virtue?

The time when Robespierre attempted to create a perfect new society, wiping out all aspects of the past.

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What is the End of Terror?

When Robespierre goes too far and is arrested and sentenced to death. He is the last victim of the terror.

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Who were the Directory?

A group of 5 men who ruled the French Government after Robespierre.

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What is a Coup d’etat?

A sudden overthrow of the government, meaning “strike against the state.”

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Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?

The leader of the coup against the directory who made himself the singular ruler of France.

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What was the consulate?

The new government after Napoleons coup.

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What was the Napoleonic code?

The simplification of the French legal system that recognized the principles of equality that were essential to the French Revolution. Through Napoleon’s military advances, he spread this idea throughout Europe.

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What was the Grand Army?

The military that Napoleon built for France.

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What is nationalism?

A deep devotion for one’s own country, this was used by Napoleon to strengthen France.

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What is a national draft?

Forced military service to increase the numbers in an army.

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What was the continental system?

The economic boycott of Britain, all “continental” countries were not to trade with Britain. This policy backfired because France needed Britain more than Britain needed France.

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What was the Louisiana territory?

A large piece of land sold to the U.S. to help Napoleon raise money for impending war.

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What was the Quadruple Alliance?

The countries pledged to the defeat of France (GB, Russia, Austria, and Sweden).

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What disasters happened to the Great Army in Russia?

Napoleon’s most ambitious military venture, the Grand Army went from a total of 600,000 men to 40,000 men. They failed due to a lack of supplies combined with the effects of the harsh Russian weather.

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What was the Fall (take 1)?

When France was defeated by the Quadruple Alliance, Napoleon was sent into exile.

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What was Elba?

A small island in the Mediterranean where Napoleon was sent to waste in exile.

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What was the 100 days?

When Napoleon escaped Elba, his island prison, and returned to France to take control.

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What was the Fall (take 2)?

When Napoleon tried to make peace after escaping Elba, but the Alliance pledged to defeat his reign.

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What was the Battle of Waterloo?

A battle in Belgium where the forces of GB and Prussia crushed Napoleons army.

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Who was the Duke of Wellington?

The commander of forces that opposed Napoleon at Waterloo.

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What is St Helena?

An island off the coast of Africa in the South Atlantic where Napoleon was exiled.

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What was the Congress of Vienna?

A meeting of the leaders of Europe to organize and lasting peace after the defeat of Napoleon.

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Who was Metternich?

A leader of the Congress of Vienna who pushed through his conservative program.

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What is conservatism?

A philosophy based on the desire to preserve the established, traditional ways of doing things.

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What is liberalism?

A philosophy that stresses individual liberty and equality under the law.

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What is socialism?

A philosophy that calls for the public ownership of the means of production.

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What is the Estates-General?

When Louis XVI was on the verge of financial collapse, he called this meeting, which had not met in 150 years.

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What is the Tennis Court Oath?

When the third estate swore they would not stop meeting until a new constitution was created.

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What is Bastille Day?

A French holiday celebrating the fall of a fortress, which was marched on by an angry mob and torn brick-by-brick. Thus, marking the beginning of the French revolution.

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What was the Great Fear?

The time in which panic swept the French nation, suffering from the fear of foreign invasion, leading to the call for a new, stable government.

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