APUSH- Period 3 Vocab

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French and Indian War

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French and Indian War

a conflict between France and Great Britain that lasted from 1754 to 1763- established Britain as the dominant European power in North

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Albany Plan of Union (1754)

a proposal by the Albany Congress, under the guidance of Benjamin Franklin, during the French and Indian war that called for a confederation of colonies to defend against attack by European and Native foes- it was the first proposal for a unified version of the colonies

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Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)

a confederation of Natives fought for their land, led by the Ottawa leader, against the presence of British troops at the end of the French and Indian war- led to the Proclamation of 1763

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Proclamation Act of 1763

a proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountain- angered the colonists

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Sugar Act of 1764

lowered the duty on foreign-produced molasses as an attempt to discourage smuggling- intended to focus the colonies only on British goods and ports

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Stamp Act of 1765

required colonists to purchase stamps for bills, newspapers, pamphlets, and other business and legal documents- the first tax that directly targeted the colonists

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Sons/Daughters of Liberty

patriotic groups that protested the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts through boycotts and non-importation agreements- played a central role in rebellion

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John Dickinson; Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania

papers that stated that colonies should have control over their own internal operations and taxations, while recognizing Parliament's power- intended to protest the Townshend Acts

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Boston Massacre (1770)

an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them; five colonists were killed- helped unite the colonies against Britain

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Committees of Correspondence

local communities established across the colonies to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets- helped spread the rebellion

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Gaspee Incident

a British ship that enforced the unfair British trade regulation was looted and burned by the American patriots- first major armed act of rebellion against the British crown

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Boston Tea Party (1773)

a political protest where colonists dumped 342 chests of British tea into the harbor to protest "taxation without representation"- fueled the tension between Britain and America

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Intolerable Acts

a series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party that restricted colonial rights- resulted in the creation of the First Continental Congress

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First Continental Congress (1774)

convention of delegates from 12/13 colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts- the boycotts against British goods were successful

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Suffolk Resolves

a declaration that resulted in the boycott of British goods until the Intolerable Acts were repealed- they were endorsed by the First Continental Congress

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Declaration of Rights and Grievances

declared that the taxes imposed on the colonists without their formal consent were unconstitutional- stated that colonists possessed all the same rights as Englishmen

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minutemen

local militiamen; they could be ready for battle at a minute's notice- fought against the British during the Revolutionary War

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Battles of Lexington and Concord

the Massachusetts militia succeeded in pushing the British army back to Boston- first military clashes of the American

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Battle of Bunker Hill

Americans built a small fort on Breed's Hill, the British attacked it and won, but they suffered heavy casualties- the first major battle of the Revolutionary War

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Second Continental Congress (1775)

the formal meeting of delegates from the American colonies to form a provisional government together to make decisions about the war with Britain over American independence- managed the colonial war effort

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Olive Branch Petition

it asserted colonial rights while still maintaining their loyalty to the British crown- a final attempt to avoid war between Great Britain and the 13 colonies

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Thomas Paine; Common Sense

a call for resistance to Britain based on arguments about the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, local traditions of self-rule, and the ideas of the Enlightenment- played a major part in uniting the colonists

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Declaration of Independence

the founding document of the United States that announced the separation of the colonies from Great Britain- it was an official step taken by the colonies away from the rule of King George III

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patriots

colonists who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution- were the backbone of the Revolutionary War

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loyalists/tories

those in the colonies who remained loyal to the British crown during the American war for independence- opposed the revolution

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Battle of Saratoga

a colonial victory in upstate New York- convinced the French to give the US military support

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Articles of Confederation

the written document that established the functions of the national government of the US after it declared independence from Great Britain- the first (very weak) government of the new United States

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Land Ordinance of 1785

a law that divided much of the US into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers and raise money- organized the lands west of the Appalachian

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Northwest Ordinance of 1787

established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that new states would be equal to the original 13- it prohibited slavery in the territory and embarked funds from land states for public schools

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Shays' Rebellion

Daniel Shays led rebels in protest against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and a lack of paper money- temporarily stopped the collection of taxes and closed debtors' courts

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Abigail Adams

wife of second president John Adams and women's rights activist- encouraged the continental congress to "remember the ladies" in the new constitution

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Annapolis Convention

meeting held to discuss interstate commerce- issued the call for states to revise the Articles of Confederation

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Constitutional Convention

the meeting of state delegate in 1787 in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation- designed the US constitution

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Framers of the Constitution

delegates to the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution of the United States- framed the Constitution into what it is today

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checks and balances

the power of each branch of government would be limited by the powers of others- prevents any one branch or official from calling all the shots

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Virginia Plan

states should be represented proportionally to their population- favored the larger states

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New Jersey Plan

states should be represented by one representative each- favored the smaller states

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Great Compromise

established that the Senate would have equal representation and the House of Representatives would have representation proportional to the size of each state- established the legislative branch of the US government

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Three-Fifths Compromise

a slave is equal to 3/5 of a person for census and representation purposes- granted disproportionate political power to southern slave states

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federalists

supporters of the Constitution and its strong federal government- helped ratify the Constitution

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anti-federalists

opponents who feared that the new government would be too strong- fought against the Constitution

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the Federalist Papers

a series of persuasive essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that presented reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provisions of the Constitution- supported the Federalists

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Bill of Rights

a list of rights intended to defend individual liberty- protected citizens against the power of the central government

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Judiciary Act of 1789

act that established a federal district court in each state and three circuit courts to hear appeals from the districts, with the Supreme Court having the final say- established the structure of the federal court system

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excise tax

a tax on the sale of a product of on a product produced for sale- Alexander Hamilton's whiskey tax was an example of this

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Citizen Edmond Genet

French government representative asking for assistance for the French revolution- sparked support for the French revolution and led to the creation of the Democratic-Republican party

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Jay Treaty

Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the American western frontier but did not say anything about impressing US seamen to the British navy- helped avoid war between Britain and the US

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Pinckney Treaty

granted American ships the right to free navigation of the Mississippi river as well as duty-free transport though the port of New Orleans- resolved territorial disputes between Spain and the US

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Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

an uprising of Western Pennsylvanian farmers that took place between 1791-1794 in response to Alexander Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey- it was the first test of federal authority in the US

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Washington's Farewell Address

a warning by exiting President Washington to not get involved in foreign affairs or divide into parties- argued for neutrality

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XYZ Affair

an incident in which French agents attempted to get a bribe and loans from US diplomats in exchange for an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships- led to an undeclared war between France and the US

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Alien and Sedition Acts

made it more difficult for foreigners to become citizens and made it illegal to criticize the government- maintained federalist power

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Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

condemned the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional and claimed that because these acts overstepped federal authority under the Constitution, they were null and void- declared that the states had the rights to declare laws unconstitutional

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Revolution of 1800

the government changed hands from one political party to another without bloodshed- the peaceful transfer of power was unique

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